Sunday, 4 February 2018
you know, i don't usually post short tracks, i consider anything under 5/6 minutes to be a demo, or just unfinished, but you know what they say, "A Stitch In Time" saves 9, and that last track, it served it's purpose, so it can stay as, standardz, hahahahahahaha, :) #edio
you know, some of you non-peep's, you may have read that, and thought to yourself, "Blahblah", (Blah-blah, used to refer to something that is boring, or without meaningful content), that would be your social filters kicking in, to refuse the knowledge, that you or rather you reasoning center of the brain, knows to be right, yet it scares you, so you refuse to see the truth, it's called cognitive dissonance, the state of having inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes, especially as relating to behavioral decisions and attitude change, the mental discomfort (psychological stress) experienced by a person who simultaneously holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values. The occurrence of cognitive dissonance is a consequence of a person performing an action that contradicts personal beliefs, ideals, and values; and also occurs when confronted with new information that contradicts said beliefs, ideals, and values, A person who experiences internal inconsistency tends to become psychologically uncomfortable, and is motivated to reduce the cognitive dissonance. This is done by making changes to justify their stressful behavior, either by adding new parts to the cognition causing the psychological dissonance, or by actively avoiding social situations and/or contradictory information likely to increase the magnitude of the cognitive dissonance as, standardz, hahahahahahaha, :) #edio
you know, it's all lie, even the first, "Moonwalker", was a lie, do you know, they have bases and mining operations on the moon, and mars and titan, Phobos, and quite a few more places, i know a guy who has a really powerful telescope, who has been filming them, and showing everyone, what they dont want them to see, and for this, he is being actively targeted by the government, and monitored and harassed with helicopter gunships, hovering over his garden, as they fire high intensity directed energy beams at him, and his family, and that is not the actions of a Honorable government, or for a soldier, that is what cowards do as, standardz, hahaha :( #edio
you know, i haven't ever given my consent, to be experimented on, like a mouse in a maze looking for a piece of, "Cheese", and a way out, and yet they carry out chemical tests, on the public without their consent it happens everywhere the want to track the spread of contagions so they release certain bacteria with chemical markers, so they can differentiate between a naturally occurring event, and theirs, and these test happen all the time, they infect population centers and watch it spread, and of course, they have improved upon this by using nano delivery systems, to instantly deliver medication/ poisons to the patient, meaning they have already deployed them, in the air and everyone is potentially infected with it, and that isn't right, it's time to begin to combat this evil corruption and get full accountability as, standardz, hahahahahaha :) #edio
you know, things are very far from, "Alright", with the world, and it mainly stems from one countries government, creating problems for everyone else, then expecting a pat on the back, when they clear up their own mess, which they never really do, they just hide the evidence, and take all the clean up money and run, it's time to hold the governments accountable for their actions, if we are to stop the fuckery, and the events planned for the future, by them, from ever happening as, standardz, hahahahahaha, ;) #edio
you know, what you do shapes the future, and i know, what i'm doing is right, i want, "Our Legacy", to be the Earth in a better way, than we found it, sure it's hard work, but if we do not fix the problems now, that mean those down the line, our children and their children, and so on, will have to suffer them too, the longer we delay, the more and more peep's suffer, do you understand me, it's time to change as, standardz, hahahahaha :) #edio
you know its Sunday and that mean, "Groove day", and the league, so if you want to make the Honour list, and grab that glory and fame!, for you home town name, interact now via blogger or google or fb as, standardz, hahahahahahahaha, :) #edio
you know, harmonic resonance IE the, "Grooveala", (Groove a la, Groove has the), power to free us all from the generation of energy, both mental and physical, to manipulation of matter, it can do it all, i urge you, to wake up, and see the wisdom in my words as, sytandardz, hahahahahaha, :) #edio
when fb finally catches up, with it's infernal buffering ffs, "Welcome To The Groove", Now let's dance as, standardz, hahahahahaha, :) #edio
you know, the thing's i tell you of, they effect, "Everybody", even if you don't believe the existn they still do!, and as such have been hard at work, infiltrating ecological systems and biological wetware, we can deactivate them, quite easily, but removal of them, is going to be tricky, but i have a simple solution, we get them, the nanites to do the walking, and let them come out of us, its easy, all we have to do is provide them with a more suitable, form of matter to convert, and make our matter/ells give of a bio-gentic protein marker, as if the body is dying, them have them touching, and they will leave on their own to the more suitable matter, to fulfill their basic survival programming, theres always a solution to the fuckery as, standardz, hahahahaha, :) #edio
you know, you can always, "Confide", (tell someone about a secret or private matter while trusting them not to repeat it to others), in me, i am the keeper!, of many secrets as, standardz, hahahahahahahaha, :) #edio
also i have a YouTube page, it has a copy of all my latest tracks,5000+ and if you keep going back, pretty much every track I've ever posted, just go to liked video's, and hit play all, and then you won't have to keep pressing play, but unfortunately you wont get to read, what i write, but you will get access, to a constant stream of tracks, for over a 2 years solid play time, but you know, ya can't have it all looolz ;)
well peep's, we've done it again, i don't know how!, maybe it was the fact, i woke up super late, and decided to, "Rush", but we've made it irregardless to the summit, this can mean but one thing, free roam mode is activated as, standardz, hahahahahahaha, :) #edio
you know, i remember, "1988", it was a good year, so much optimism, that things were finally going right for the Peep's, their walls we're being torn down, and goodwill was prevalent in the hearts and minds of the world, it started well until they realised, that they were losing their control, but see for yourself follow the time line,
you know, i remember, "1988", it was a good year, so much optimism, that things were finally going right for the Peep's, their walls we're being torn down, and goodwill was prevalent in the hearts and minds of the world, it started well until they realised, that they were losing their control, but see for yourself follow the time line,
1988 Jan 1, President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev exchanged optimistic New Year's greetings, expressing mutual hope they would reach an arms control treaty on strategic weapons within six months.
1988 Jan 2, President Reagan and Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney signed an agreement to lift trade restrictions between their countries.
1988 Jan 2, An Ashland Oil Company tank collapsed at Floreffe near Elizabeth, Penn., sending more than 700,000 gallons of diesel oil into the Monongahela River.
1988 Jan 3, Margaret Thatcher (b.1925) became the longest serving British PM this century.
1988 Jan 3, The Israeli Army ordered nine Palestinian activists deported from West Beirut as part of a controversial crackdown to stop the uprising in the occupied territories. Israeli raids on Palestinian and Progressive Socialist Party positions in the region of Saida make killed 21 persons and wounded 11.
1988 Jan 4, Drinking water began to dry up in Pittsburgh suburbs because of a massive diesel oil spill two days earlier that fouled the Monongahela and Ohio rivers.
1988 Jan 5, The U.N. Security Council voted unanimously to ask Israel not to deport Palestinians from the occupied territories in the first council vote against Israel since 1981.
1988 Jan 5, Basketball star "Pistol" Pete Maravich died of a heart attack during a pickup game in Pasadena, Calif., at age 40. He had recently finished an autobiography. In 2007 Mark Kriegel authored “Pistol: The Life of Pete Maravich."
(AP, 1/5/98)(WSJ, 2/3/07, p.P13)
1988 Jan 6, Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze was quoted by the Afghan news agency as saying the Kremlin wanted to pull an estimated 115,000 soldiers from Afghanistan in the coming year.
1988 Jan 7, Secretary of State George P. Shultz, seeking to smooth a rift caused by a United Nations vote, told reporters that overall American support for Israel remained "unshakable."
1988 Jan 7, British actor Trevor Howard died in England at age 71.
1988 Jan 8, An Arizona state grand jury indicted Gov. Evan Mecham (1924-2008) and his brother, Willard, on charges of concealing a campaign loan. Both were later acquitted on these charges.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evan_Mecham)(SFC, 2/23/08, p.B5)
1988 Jan 8, In San Francisco Art Agnos was inaugurated as the city’s 39th mayor. He promised not to rest as long as a single homeless person has to make a bed on the streets of the city.
(SSFC, 1/6/13, DB p.42)
1988 Jan 10, In Pakistan Farooq Sattar (28), a founding member of the MQM, became Karachi’s youngest mayor.
(WSJ, 12/5/07, p.A22)(http://tinyurl.com/36566r)
1988 Jan 10, Soviet media reported on an interview given to Chinese journalists by Mikhail S. Gorbachev, who praised the state of Sino-Soviet relations and called for a summit. The Beijing government turned aside the summit call, saying Soviet-backed Vietnamese forces first had to withdraw from Cambodia.
1988 Jan 11, Alexandria, Danielle, Erica, Raymond and Veronica L'Esperance, the first US test tube quintuplets, were born in Royal Oak, Michigan.
1988 Jan 11, Vice President George Bush met with representatives of independent counsel Lawrence E. Walsh to answer questions about the Iran-Contra affair.
1988 Jan 11, Gregory "Pappy" Boyington (75), World War II flying ace died in Fresno, Calif.
1988 Jan 11, The Soviet Union announced it would participate in the 1988 Seoul Summer Olympics.
1988 Jan 12, Willie Stargell, a 21-year slugger with the Pittsburgh Pirates, was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, N.Y., in his first year of eligibility.
1988 Jan 13, The US Supreme Court ruled 5-3 that public school officials had broad powers to censor school newspapers, school plays and other "school-sponsored expressive activities."
1988 Jan 13, Lee Teng-hui (b.1923) became president of Taiwan, the first Taiwan-born head-of-state, following the death of President Chiang Ching-kuo. Lee Teng-hui authorized the establishment of the separatist Democratic Progressive party (DPP).
(WSJ, 2/26/96, p.A-1)(http://experts.about.com/e/l/le/Lee_Teng-hui.htm)
1988 Jan 14, With the United States abstaining, the U.N. Security Council voted 14-0 to call on Israel to stop deporting Palestinians and to allow those already expelled to return.
1988 Jan 15, Jimmy "The Greek" Snyder made racist remarks about black athletes. The CBS football analyst was fired the next day.
1988 Jan 15, Sean MacBride (b.1904), Ireland, commander of Irish Republican Army, died. He was a founding member of Amnesty Int’l. and was awarded the Nobel peace Prize in 1974. He wrote the Constitution of the Organization for African Unity and the first Constitution of Ghana, the first UK African Colony to achieve Independence.
1988 Jan 15, In Jerusalem, riot police charged into the Al Aqsa and Dome of the Rock mosques after worshipers beat a policeman and stole his pistol during some of the worst clashes seen on the revered Temple Mount.
1988 Jan 16, Jimmy "The Greek" Snyder was fired as a CBS Sports commentator one day after telling a TV station in Washington, D.C., that, during the era of slavery, blacks had been bred to produce stronger offspring. He was fired because he claimed blacks were superior to whites in athletics, and he traced it back to how blacks were bred. To make matters worse, he also said "if blacks take over coaching like everybody wants them to, there is not going to be anything left for the white people."
1988 Jan 16, Andrija Artukovic (b.1899), a Croatian Ustasha and a convicted war criminal for the crimes committed against minorities in the WWII Independent State of Croatia (NDH), died in a prison hospital in Zagreb.
(SSFC, 4/4/10, Par. p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrija_Artukovi%C4%87)
1988 Jan 17, The Washington Redskins won the NFC championship by defeating the Minnesota Vikings 17-10; the Denver Broncos beat the Cleveland Browns 38-33 to win the AFC title.
1988 Jan 17, Haiti held a presidential election run by the military-led junta that was boycotted by the opposition.
1988 Jan 17, Angelo de Mojana di Cologna, the Grand Master of The Order of St. John (Knights of Malta), died. Fidel Castro declared a national day of mourning in Cuba.
(WSJ, 12/30/94, p.A6)(www.worldstatesmen.org/Malta_knights.htm)
1988 Jan 18, An airliner crashed in southwestern China, killing all 108 people on board, according to the official Xinhua news agency.
1988 Jan 19, State Farm Insurance Co. in California announced that it will pay $1.3 million to settle a sex discrimination lawsuit brought by three former employees.
1988 Jan 19, In downtown San Francisco a runaway commuter bus plowed through a crowd at Mission and Fremont killing at least 3 people and injuring 15.
(SSFC, 1/20/13, DB p.46)
1988 Jan 20, An Arizona House committee opened hearings on the possible impeachment of Gov. Evan Mecham.
1988 Jan 20, Philippe de Rothschild (b.1902), Bordeaux Vineyard manager, died in Paris.
1988 Jan 21, Retin-A got a boost when a study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association said the anti-acne drug could also reduce wrinkles caused by exposure to the sun.
1988 Jan 22, A US federal appeals court ruled that court appointment of independent counsels to investigate allegations of wrongdoing by high-ranking government officials was unconstitutional; however, the Supreme Court upheld the law the following June.
1988 Jan 23, More than 50,000 Israelis demonstrated in Tel Aviv to protest the treatment of Palestinians in the occupied territories.
1988 Jan 23, Charles Glenn King (b.1896), biochemist, died. He and a team of students isolated vitamin C in 1932.
1988 Jan 24, The government of Haiti declared Leslie Manigat winner of that country's presidential election. However, Manigat was overthrown by Haiti's military leader, Lt. Gen. Henri Hamphy, the following June.
1988 Jan 25, In his final State of the Union address, President Reagan declared America was "strong, prosperous, at peace." Vice President George Bush and Dan Rather clashed on "The CBS Evening News" as the anchorman attempted to question the Republican presidential candidate about his role in the Iran-Contra affair.
1988 Jan 26, The Andrew Lloyd Webber musical "Phantom of the Opera" opened at Broadway's Majestic Theater. It ran for 4,000+ performances.
1988 Jan 26, Australians celebrated the 200th anniversary of their country as a grand parade of tall ships sailed in Sydney Harbor, re-enacting the voyage of the first European settlers.
1988 Jan 27, The US Senate Judiciary Committee unanimously approved the nomination of Judge Anthony M. Kennedy to the Supreme Court.
1988 Jan 28, A 13-day standoff in Marion, Utah, between police and a polygamist clan ended in gunfire that killed a state corrections officer and seriously wounded the group's leader, Addam Swapp.
1988 Jan 28, Public Service of New Hampshire filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. This was the first American utility since the Depression to go bankrupt, mostly because of unexpected costs of a nuclear plant.
(www.nu.com/aboutnu/psnh.asp)(Econ, 6/2/07, SR p.22)
1988 Jan 28, The Supreme Court of Canada struck down the nation's restrictive abortion law.
1988 Jan 28, Nicaragua's leftist government and Contra rebels began their first face-to-face peace talks, meeting in San Jose, Costa Rica.
1988 Jan 29, A Boston-bound Amtrak train derailed in Chester, Penn., injuring 25 people.
1988 Jan 29, Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega received a coolly polite reception from Pope John Paul II at the Vatican.
1988 Jan 30, Israeli troops fired on hundreds of demonstrators in the West Bank while protests also rocked the Gaza Strip, shattering three weeks of relative quiet in the occupied territories.
1988 Jan 31, The Washington Redskins beat the Denver Broncos, 42-10, to win Super Bowl XXII at Jack Murphy Stadium in San Diego.
1988 Jan, Women in Black began at the start of the Palestinian uprising, when about 30 Israeli women gathered in the center of Jerusalem in silent protest, each with a sign saying "Stop the Occupation." By the 1990-1991 Gulf War, there were 30 vigils all over Israel.
1988 Feb 1, Denying any wrongdoing, US Attorney General Edwin Meese III said he didn't recall part of a memo about a proposed Iraqi pipeline project that referred to a plan to bribe Israeli officials.
1988 Feb 2, In a speech that three major television networks declined to broadcast live, President Reagan pressed his case for aid to the Nicaraguan Contras.
1988 Feb 2, In Chile the Concertación, a coalition of center-left political parties, was founded. Presidential candidates under its banner won every election from when military rule ended in 1990 until the conservative candidate Sebastián Piñera won the Chilean presidential election in 2010. In 2013 it was replaced by New Majority coalition.
1988 Feb 3, The U.S. House of Representatives handed President Reagan a major defeat, rejecting his request for at least $36.25 million in aid to the Nicaraguan Contras.
1988 Feb 3, The U.S. Senate voted unanimously to confirm Anthony M. Kennedy to the U.S. Supreme Court.
1988 Feb 3, Robert Duncan, American poet, died. He and his partner Jess Collins (d.2004) along with Harry Jacobus founded the King Ubu Gallery in SF in 1953.
(SFC, 1/7/04, p.A19)(www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/poets/a_f/duncan/life.htm)
1988 Feb 4, Senate Republican Leader Bob Dole twice confronted Vice President George Bush on the floor of the Senate, accusing his GOP presidential rival of condoning a campaign attack that amounted to "groveling in the mud."
1988 Feb 5, The Arizona House impeached Gov. Evan Mecham, setting the stage for his conviction in the state Senate.
1988 Feb 5, A pair of indictments were unsealed in Florida, accusing Panama's military leader, Gen. Manuel Antonio Noriega, of bribery and drug trafficking. Noriega had used Panama to ship cocaine to the US from Colombia taking some $200-$300 million for himself.
(AP, 2/5/97)(Econ 6/3/17, p.82)
1988 Feb 6, Presidential hopefuls stormed through a final weekend of campaigning before Iowa's precinct caucuses, with a poll for the Des Moines Register giving Bob Dole the lead among Republicans and Dick Gephardt a narrow lead among Democrats.
1988 Feb 7, Leslie Manigat was sworn in as Haiti's president. However, he lost power the following June.
1988 Feb 8, Jimmy Lee Dill fatally shot and killed Leon Shaw in Birmingham, Alabama, and robbed him of cocaine and about $200. Dill (49) was executed in 2009.
(SFC, 4/17/09, p.A6)(www.wsfa.com/Global/story.asp?S=10197524&nav=0rde)
1988 Feb 10, A 3-judge panel of the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco struck down the Army's ban on homosexuals, saying gays were entitled to the same protection against discrimination as racial minorities. The ruling was later set aside by the full appeals court.
1988 Feb 11, President Reagan's onetime political director, Lyn Nofziger, was convicted of illegally lobbying top White House aides. However, the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals later overturned Nofziger's conviction, and the Supreme Court refused to reinstate it.
1988 Feb 11, Iran launched a campaign to retake the Fao Peninsula from Iraq with US planning assistance. Chemical weapons were used in the attack.
(SSFC, 8/18/02, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Faw_Peninsula)
1988 Feb 12, Alexander M. Haig dropped out of the race for the Republican presidential nomination.
1988 Feb 12, The Pentagon charged that two Soviet Navy vessels deliberately bumped two U.S. warships in the Black Sea as the American vessels sailed through waters claimed by the Soviet Union.
1988 Feb 13, The 15th winter Olympics opened in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
1988 Feb 13, President Reagan and Mexican President Miguel de la Madrid met in the Mexican resort of Mazatlan.
1988 Feb 14, Hours after learning that his sister had died of leukemia, American Dan Jansen lost his bid for a gold medal at the Winter Olympics in Calgary, Canada, when he fell during the 500-meter speed-skating event.
1988 Feb 14, Broadway composer Frederick Loewe, who wrote the scores for "My Fair Lady" and "Camelot," died in Palm Springs, Calif., at age 86.
1988 Feb 14, Alfredo Stroessner was re-elected president of Paraguay.
1988 Feb 15, Richard Feynman (b.1918), physicist and 1965 Nobel prize winner, died. He invented the Feynman diagrams, a shorthand way of representing how electrons and photons interact. His book "What Do You Care What Other People Think" was published this year. In 1992 James Gleick wrote his biography: "Genius: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman." A collection of his short works: "The Pleasure of Finding Things Out" was published in 1999.
(SFEC, 8/3/97, BR p.3)(WSJ, 11/10/99, p.A20)(http://tinyurl.com/gaxcj)
1988 Feb 15, Frederick [Fritz] Loewe (b.1901), German-born composer (Brigadoon, My Fair Lady, Camelot), died in California.
1988 Feb 15, Austrian President Kurt Waldheim vowed in a televised address not to "retreat in the face of slanders" concerning his service for the German Army during World War II.
1988 Feb 15, The Soviet Union was defeated by Afghanistan, and a total withdrawal by the Soviets occurred. In 2003 George Crile authored "Charlie Wilson's War: The Extraordinary Story of the largest Covert Operation in History."
(www.afghan, 5/25/98)(SSFC, 5/25/03, p.M1)
1988 Feb 16, Vice President George Bush and Massachusetts Gov. Michael S. Dukakis scored big victories in the New Hampshire Republican and Democratic presidential primaries. Bush won the New Hampshire primary over Bob Dole, Jack Kemp, Pete du Pont and Pat Robertson 37.7 to 28.5 to 12.8 to 10.1 to 9.4%. Dukakis won over Dick Gephardt and Paul Simon 35.9 to 19.9 to 17.2%.
(AP, 2/16/98)(SSFC, 1/25/04, p.A19)
1988 Feb 16, Richard Wade Farley gunned down 7 people at ESL Corp. during an office rampage in Sunnyvale, Calif. Farley was later convicted of murder and sentenced to death.
(AP, 2/16/98)(SFC, 10/27/04, p.B1)
1988 Feb 17, Lt. Col. William Higgins, an American officer serving with a United Nations truce monitoring group, was kidnapped in southern Lebanon. He was later slain by his captors.
1988 Feb 18, Anthony M. Kennedy was sworn in as the 104th justice of the Supreme Court.
1988 Feb 18, Soviet Communist Party leaders dropped former Moscow party chief Boris N. Yeltsin from the ruling Politburo.
1988 Feb 19, A group calling itself the "Organization of the Oppressed on Earth" claimed responsibility for the kidnapping in Lebanon of U.S. Marine Lt. Col. William R. Higgins. Higgins was later slain by his captors.
1988 Feb 20, U.S. figure skater Brian Boitano won the gold medal in the men's competition at the Winter Olympic Games in Calgary, Canada, with Brian Orser of Canada placing second.
1988 Feb 20, Peter Kalikow purchased the NY Post from Rupert Murdoch for $37.6 million.
1988 Feb 21, TV evangelist Jimmy Swaggart tearfully confessed to his congregation in Baton Rouge, La., that he was guilty of an unspecified sin, and said he was leaving the pulpit temporarily. Reports linked Swaggart to an admitted prostitute, Debra Murphree.
1988 Feb 23, President Reagan named William L. Ball III to succeed James H. Webb Jr. as Navy Secretary.
1988 Feb 23, Presidential hopeful Bob Dole defeated Vice President George Bush in the South Dakota and Minnesota Republican primaries; among Democrats, Michael S. Dukakis won in Minnesota, Dick Gephardt in South Dakota.
1988 Feb 24, In a 8-0 ruling that expanded legal protections for parody and satire, the US Supreme Court overturned a $200,000 award that the Rev. Jerry Falwell had won against "Hustler" magazine and publisher Larry Flynt.
1988 Feb 24, A week of tropical rainstorms left at least 275 people dead in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.
1988 Feb 25, Chicago gave the Cubs baseball team the right to install lights and play up to 18 night games.
1988 Feb 25, Panama's civilian president, Eric Arturo Delvalle announced the dismissal of Gen. Manuel Antonio Noriega as commander of the country's Defense Forces. The next day, Panama's National Assembly voted to oust Delvalle.
1988 Feb 26, In NYC police officer Edward Byrne was killed with five shots to the head. His death led Congress to create the Edward Byrne Justice Assistance Grant (JAG).
(Econ, 11/30/13, p.32)
1988 Feb 26, Eric Arturo Delvalle, ousted as president of Panama by the country's National Assembly, called for a national strike to repudiate Gen. Manuel Antonio Noriega.
1988 Feb 26, The Soviet Union's hockey team clinched the gold medal at the Winter Olympics in Calgary, Canada.
1988 Feb 27, Katarina Witt of East Germany won the gold medal in women's figure skating at the Winter Olympics in Calgary, Canada, with Elizabeth Manley of Canada placing second and Debi Thomas of the United States, third. Debi Thomas became the first African American to win a medal at the Winter Olympics.
(AP, 2/27/98)(HN, 2/27/99)
1988 Feb 28, The 15th Olympic Winter Games held its closing ceremony in Calgary, Canada.
1988 Feb 28, Ethnic unrest broke out between Armenians and Azerbaijanis in the city of Sumgait. There was an anti-Armenian pogrom in the town of Sumgait. A national awakening occurred in Azerbaijan when conflict erupted over the Armenian enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh, included by the Soviets in the Republic of Azerbaijan. The Armenian population in Nagorno-Karabakh began fighting for independence.
(WSJ, 8/7/96, p.A15)(AP, 2/28/98)(SFC, 11/27/96, p.A13)(WSJ, 5/14/97, p.A22)
1988 Feb 29, A Nazi document was discovered that implicated participation of Austrian president and former U.N. Secretary General Kurt Waldheim in WWII deportations.
1988 Feb 29, South African Archbishop Desmond Tutu and other religious leaders were arrested while kneeling near Parliament with a petition against government bans on anti-apartheid groups. All were freed hours later.
1988 Feb, Republican George H.W. Bush won the New Hampshire primary over Bob Dole, Jack Kemp, Pete du Pont and Pat Robertson 37.7 to 28.5 to 12.8 to 10.1 to 9.4%. Democrat Michael Dukakis won over Dick Gephardt and Paul Simon 35.9 to 19.9 to 17.2%.
(SSFC, 1/25/04, p.A19)
1988 Feb, A Panamanian freighter named Christina M was seized north of Hawaii with 20 tons of marijuana. Steven Martin Wolosky and Mark Stephen Gayer were arrested in March as leaders of a drug ring that organized the transfer of marijuana from mother ships to smaller vessels. The 2 men faked a 1989 boating accident and went into hiding until caught in 2000.
(SFC, 6/22/00, p.A15)
1988 Feb, Wool sold for $230 a bale, a record price.
(NG, 5.1988, pp. 575)
1988 Feb-1988 Sep, Some 50-100 thousand Kurds were killed by poisonous gas from Iraqi forces in the 8-stage Anfal campaign. The Hussein regime bulldozed some 4,000 ethnic Kurd villages due to suspicions of Kurds siding with Iran. Estimates held as many as 182,000 Kurds dead or missing.
(SFC, 9/24/02, p.A11)(AP, 8/21/06)(SFC, 8/21/06, p.A6)(SFC, 4/18/03, p.A18)
1988 Mar 1, Courtney Gibbs Eplin (21) of Texas was crowned 37th Miss USA.
1988 Mar 1, President Reagan arrived in Brussels, Belgium, for the first NATO summit in six years.
1988 Mar 1, Pontiac announced the end of the Fiero automobile.
1988 Mar 1, Iraq said it had fired 16 missiles into Tehran in the first long-range rocket attack on the Iranian capital since the Iran-Iraq war began.
1988 Mar 2, In the 30th Grammy Awards: Graceland, Joshua Tree, Jody Watley won.
1988 Mar 2, Dutch Liberal Party merged with SDP.
1988 Mar 2, The U.N. General Assembly voted overwhelmingly to order the United States to submit to binding arbitration its plan to close the observer mission of the Palestine Liberation Organization. A federal court later stopped the U.S.
1988 Mar 3, The U.S. House of Representatives rejected a package of $30 million in non-lethal aid for the Nicaraguan Contras.
1988 Mar 4, The US Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that the civilian unemployment rate had dropped the previous month to 5.7 percent.
1988 Mar 5, Vice President George Bush won the South Carolina Republican primary, with Kansas Senator Bob Dole running a distant second, followed by Pat Robertson and New York Congressman Jack Kemp.
1988 Mar 6, The board of trustees at Gallaudet University in Washington, D.C., a liberal arts college for the deaf, selected Elisabeth Zinser, a hearing woman, to be school president. Outraged students shut down the campus, forcing the selection of a deaf president, I. King Jordan, instead.
1988 Mar 6, British SAS officers killed 3 IRA suspects in Gibraltar.
1988 Mar 7, The US Supreme Court sided with an investor who lost money when he sold shares in Basic Inc because a pending merger was being publicly denied by the company. This led to the established the principle of “fraud-on-the-market."
(http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/485/224/case.html)(Econ, 3/1/14, p.73)
1988 Mar 7, Divine (born as Harris Milstead in 1945), female impersonator (Pink Flamingos, Hairspray), died.
1988 Mar 7, Robert Livingston (b.1904), actor (Lone Ranger), died of emphysema. He was born as Robert Edgar Randall. There were 51 Three Mesquiteers yarns churned out by Republic Pictures from 1936-1943, and Livingston appeared in 29.
1988 Mar 7, Three Israelis were killed when three Arab gunmen hijacked a commuter bus in the Negev Desert; the hijackers themselves were killed when Israeli forces stormed the vehicle.
1988 Mar 8, Vice President George Bush was the big winner in the Super Tuesday Republican presidential primaries. Among Democrats, Michael S. Dukakis, Jesse Jackson and Al Gore split the lion's share of delegates.
1988 Mar 8, In San Francisco at least 3 people made off with more than half a million dollars after the loot spilled from a Loomis Armored Inc. truck onto Third Street. An additional $1.3 million was left on the street. Louis A Lopez of Daly City picked up two bundles containing $40,100 and took them to the Loomis offices.
(SSFC, 3/3/13, DB p.42)
1988 Mar 8, Seventeen soldiers died when two Army helicopters from Fort Campbell, Ky., collided in midair.
1988 Mar 9, The day after the Super Tuesday primaries and caucuses, Republican George Bush spent the day in Houston, savoring his 16-state sweep, while Democrats Michael Dukakis, Jesse Jackson and Al Gore enjoyed more modest successes.
1988 Mar 9, Kurt Georg Kiesinger (b.1904), West German chancellor (1966-69), died.
1988 Mar 10, New York Congressman Jack Kemp dropped out of the race for the Republican presidential nomination.
1988 Mar 10, Prior to the 50th anniversary of the Anschluss, Austrian President Kurt Waldheim apologized on his country's behalf for atrocities committed by Austrian Nazis.
1988 Mar 10, Pop singer Andy Gibb died in Oxford, England, at age 30 of heart inflammation.
1988 Mar 11, Saying, "The people have decided," Gary Hart withdrew a second time from the race for the 1988 Democratic presidential nomination. Gary Hart, former US Senator from Colorado campaigned for the democratic nomination for president until a photograph of himself with a woman named Donna Rice, not his wife, appeared. She sat on his lap aboard a boat named Monkey Business. In 1996 Hart wrote a book using Machiavelli’s "The Prince" format. It was titled: "The Patriot: An Exhortation to Liberate America From the Barbarians."
(SFC, 7/14/96, p.C11)(AP, 3/11/98)
1988 Mar 12, Rev. Jesse Jackson won the Democratic precinct caucuses in his native South Carolina.
1988 Mar 12, Romare Bearden (b.1911), North Carolina-born African American artist, died in NY. He depicted black culture and history and transferred his collages to prints using a variety of techniques. In 2004 Jan Greenberg authored "Romare Bearden: Collage of Memories."
(SFC, 3/24/04, p.E1)(www.courses.vcu.edu/ENG-mam/bio5.htm)
1988 Mar 13, Yielding to student protests, the board of trustees of Gallaudet University in Washington, D.C., a liberal arts college for the hearing-impaired, chose I. King Jordan to become the school's first deaf president, replacing Elisabeth Ann Zinser, a hearing woman.
1988 Mar 13, John Curtis Holmes, former porn star, died of an AIDS-related illness. In 2003 the film "Wonderland" starred Val Kilmer as Holmes.
(ST, 10/17/03, p.22H)(http://tinyurl.com/4whfj)
1988 Mar 14, Chinese troops killed 64 Vietnamese sailors in clashes over the Spratly Islands. Nine Vietnamese engineering soldiers were taken prisoner.
(Econ, 10/22/11, p.53)(AP, 3/14/16)
1988 Mar 14, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir arrived in Washington, D.C., with what he called new ideas for Middle East peace talks, despite maintaining a hard-line on Israel's retention of the occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip.
1988 Mar 15, Paul Simon defeated Jesse Jackson in the Illinois Democratic primary, while George Bush won a ringing victory over Bob Dole in the Republican contest.
1988 Mar 15, NFL owners approved the move of the St Louis Cardinals to Phoenix.
1988 Mar 15, In southern California Joe Morgan (49), a former baseball star and Hall of Famer, was roughed up and handcuffed by LA police and a DEA agent, who mistook him for a drug suspect. A federal appeal court later reduced Morgan’s $540,000 damage award to between $190,000 and $340,000.
(SSFC, 9/10/17 DB p.54)
1988 Mar 16, The US sent 3000 soldiers to Honduras.
1988 Mar 16, Former National Security Adviser John M. Poindexter, former White House aide Oliver L. North, retired Air Force Maj. Gen. Richard V. Secord and Secord's business partner, Albert Hakim, were indicted on charges relating to the Iran-Contra affair. Poindexter and North had their convictions thrown out; Secord and Hakim received probation after each pleaded guilty to a single count.
1988 Mar 16, Mickey Thompson (59), drag racer, and his wife Trudy (41) were found shot to death at their Bradbury home 15 miles east of LA. In December, 2001, Michael Goodwin, Thompson’s former business partner, was charged with the murders of Mickey and Trudy Thompson. Goodwin’s trial opened in 2006. On Jan 4, 2007, a jury convicted Michael Goodwin on two counts of murder. On Mar 1, 2007, Goodwin was sentenced to 2 consecutive life terms in prison and continued to claim he was innocent of the murder.
(www.unsolved.com/UD0204-Thompson.html)(SFC, 1/5/07, p.B10)(SFC, 3/2/07, p.B12)
1988 Mar 16-1988 Mar 17, Iraqi jets dropped a variety of chemical weapons on the Kurdish town of Halabja and some 5-7,000 residents were killed immediately. The Kurdish city of Halabja, held by Iranian troops and Iraqi Kurdish guerrillas allied with Tehran, was bombed by Iraq. Estimates of casualties varied from several hundred to several thousand.
(SFC, 7/1/02, p.A6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halabja_poison_gas_attack)
1988 Mar 16, Three people were killed when Michael Stone, a pro British paramilitary member, armed with guns and grenades attacked an IRA graveside service in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Stone was also responsible for killing 3 Catholics in the mid 1980s. In 2000 Stone was released from prison as part of a peace accord.
(AP, 3/17/98)(SFC, 7/25/00, p.A12)
1988 Mar 17, Planeloads of U.S. soldiers arrived at Palmerola Air Base in Honduras in a show of strength ordered by President Reagan.
1988 Mar 17, Apple filed suit against Microsoft, alleging copyright infringement in the Windows GUI.
(Wired, 12/98, p.196)
1988 Mar 17, Ethiopia and Eritrea engaged at the Battle at Afabet. Fighting continued through March 20. It was a watershed battle in the Eritrean War of Independence. This was Mengistu Haile Mariam's first humiliating defeat at the hands of the Eritreans.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Afabet)(SSFC, 4/15/12, p.P3)
1988 Mar 18, In Alabama Elizabeth Dorleen Sennett (45), the wife of a preacher, died after she was brutally beaten and stabbed in a contract killing. A week after becoming a suspect in the case, the victim's husband, Charles Sennett, shot and killed himself in his son's backyard. Sennett had contracted Bill Gray Williams to kill his wife for $3,000. According to court documents, Williams paid Kenneth Eugene Smith and John Forrest Parker $1,000 each to commit the murder. Parker was convicted in 1989 and executed for the murder in 2010.
(http://tinyurl.com/2696ump)(SFC, 6/11/10, p.A6)
1988 Mar 18, The government of Panama, controlled by Gen. Manuel Antonio Noriega, declared a "state of urgency" in a move apparently aimed at forcing the reopening of banks and other businesses that closed during Panama's economic and political crisis.
1988 Mar 19, Two British soldiers were shot to death after they were dragged from a car and beaten by mourners attending an Irish Republican Army funeral in Belfast, Northern Ireland.
1988 Mar 20, David Henry Hwang's "M. Butterfly" premiered in NYC.
1988 Mar 20, Eight-year-old DeAndra Anrig found herself airborne when the string of her kite was snagged by an airplane flying over Shoreline Park in Mountain View, Calif. Not seriously hurt, she was lifted 10 feet off the ground and carried 100 feet until she let go.
1988 Mar 22, Both houses of Congress overrode President Reagan's veto of a sweeping civil rights bill. The Civil Rights Restoration Act restored the jurisdiction over Title IX issues in athletic programs to the Office for Civil Rights.
(AP, 3/22/97)(SFEC, 5/23/99, p.A16)
1988 Mar 22, In Angola the battle of Cuito Cuanavale changed the region's political landscape, accelerating the independence of Namibia and the fall of apartheid in South Africa. While the Cuban and Angolan forces claimed victory, South Africa claimed it lost only 31 soldiers against 4,785 who fell on the other side.
1988 Mar 22, Iraqi jets dropped a variety of chemical weapons on the Kurdish town of Sewsenan, where militiamen had fled following attacks on Halabja.
(SFC, 8/21/06, p.A6)
1988 Mar 23, President Reagan announced he would visit the Soviet Union for the first time, from May 29 until June 2, for his fourth summit meeting with Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev.
1988 Mar 24, Former national security aides Oliver L. North and John M. Poindexter and businessmen Richard V. Secord and Albert Hakim pleaded innocent to Iran-Contra charges. North and Poindexter were convicted, but had their convictions thrown out; Secord and Hakim received probation after each pleaded guilty to a single count under a plea bargain.
1988 Mar 25, In New York City's so-called "preppie murder case," Robert E. Chambers Jr. pleaded guilty to first-degree manslaughter in the death of 18-year-old Jennifer Levin. Chambers was convicted of the killing after what he described as a session of rough sex. Chambers received a sentence of five to 15 years in prison. He walked out of the Auburn Correctional Facility in Auburn, N.Y, Feb, 2003, after serving a full 15-year maximum sentence for the 1986 Central Park killing.
1988 Mar 25, Robert Joffrey (b.1930), founder of the Joffrey Ballet Company, died. In 1996 Sasha Anawalt wrote: "The Joffrey Ballet: Robert Joffrey and the Making of an American Dance Company."
(SFEC, 12/15/96, BR p.4)(www.answers.com/topic/joffrey-robert)
1988 Mar 26, Jesse Jackson stunned fellow Democrats by soundly defeating Michael S. Dukakis in Michigan's Democratic presidential caucuses.
1988 Mar 27, Jesse Jackson, rejoicing from an upset victory in Michigan's primary-style caucuses the day before, vowed that his Democratic presidential campaign would continue to "win and grow."
1988 Mar 28, Richard Gephardt ended his bid for the Democratic presidential nomination, following his third-place finish in the Michigan caucuses.
1988 Mar 29, Two top US Justice Department officials resigned over Attorney General Edwin Meese's legal problems.
1988 Mar 29, Sen. Bob Dole ended his presidential candidacy. Michael Dukakis won the Connecticut Democratic primary.
1988 Mar 29, US leaders of the Assemblies of God ordered the Rev. Jimmy Swaggart to stop preaching for at least a year because of "moral failure," following his reported relationship with a prostitute.
1988 Mar 30, US House Democratic and Republican leaders said that they had agreed in principle on a package of about $50 million to aid the Nicaraguan rebels.
1988 Mar 30, An attorney for the Rev. Jimmy Swaggart said the televangelist would return to the pulpit, defying national Assemblies of God church officials who had suspended him for at least a year for "moral failure."
1988 Mar 31, The novel "Beloved" by Toni Morrison was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for fiction, while the Charlotte (N.C) Observer won the prize for public service for its coverage of the Praise The Lord scandal.
1988 Mar, The first McDonald's behind the Iron Curtain opened in Belgrade.
(WSJ, 2/6/96, p.A-11)
1988 Mar, In Burma riot police shot to death 200 demonstrators as students began an uprising for democracy.
(SFEC, 1/19/96, Parade p.5)(SFC, 5/7/02, p.A9)
1988 Mar, Israel found Mordechai Vanunu, former Israeli nuclear technician, guilty of divulging nuclear secrets. He was sentenced to 18 years in prison.
(SFC, 4/22/04, p.A3)(http://tinyurl.com/mysea)
1988 Mar-1988 Jun, In the Spring Soviet germ scientists transferred hundreds of tons of anthrax bacteria into canisters with bleach and sent them for storage to Vozrozhdeniye Island (Renaissance Island) in the Aral Sea, shared by Kazakstan and Uzbekistan. Western estimates had 100-200 tons buried at 5-8 feet. In 2002 Pentagon engineers dug up the site and neutralized the anthrax.
(SFC, 3/24/03, p.A5) (www.phaster.com/unpretentious/uzbekistan_anthrax.html)
1988 Apr 1, Independent US counsel James C. McKay found insufficient evidence to warrant a criminal indictment of Attorney General Edwin Meese III in connection with the Iraq-Jordan pipeline plan or his investment in telephone company stock.
1988 Apr 1, Jim Jordan (91), old-time radio's "Fibber McGee," died in Beverly Hills, Calif.
1988 Apr 2, Secretary of State George P. Shultz briefed Pope John Paul II on his Middle East peace proposals during a private audience at the Vatican.
1988 Apr 2, In Chile police Corp. Alfredo Rivera Rohas (35) was murdered by 3 youths while carrying home groceries in Santiago.
(WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A19)
1988 Apr 3, Secretary of State George P. Shultz arrived in Israel to launch a fresh U.S. peace initiative, telling the Israelis that the Palestinians must be included in negotiations.
1988 Apr 4, The Arizona Senate convicted Gov. Evan Mecham of two charges of official misconduct, and removed him from office. Mecham was the first U.S. governor to be so censured in nearly six decades.
1988 Apr 5 Gov. Michael S. Dukakis won a solid victory in Wisconsin's Democratic presidential primary while, on the Republican side, Vice President George Bush overwhelmed his opposition.
1988 Apr 5, Honduran and US authorities captured Juan Ramon Matta-Ballesteros (b.1945). He was taken from Honduras by US marshals, triggering violent protests, the burning of a US Embassy office and the deaths of five people. In 2011 a court issued warrants for the arrest of 11 former officials accused of helping US authorities seize the drug trafficker.
1988 Apr 5 A 15-day hijacking ordeal began as gunmen forced a Kuwait Airways jumbo jet to land in Iran.
1988 Apr 5, Alf Kjellin, Swedish actor, director (Juggler), died.
1988 Apr 6, Black Arctic explorer Matthew Henson (1866-1955) was re-buried next to Robert Peary in Arlington, Va.
1988 Apr 6, Tirza Porat (15), was killed in a West Bank melee, becoming the first Israeli civilian to die in the occupied territories since the start of the Palestinian uprising. Although Arabs were initially blamed, the army concluded that a Jewish settler accidentally shot the girl.
1988 Apr 7, Albie Sachs (b.1935) was working in Mozambique on legal guarantees that would be part of the new South African Constitution when a car bomb exploded that left him without a right arm.
(SFEC, 2/9/97, Z1 p.7)(www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/8732.html)
1988 Apr 7, Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev and Afghan leader Najibullah met in the Soviet Central Asian city of Tashkent. They later issued a joint statement announcing an end to the civil war in Afghanistan and withdrawal Soviet troops.
1988 Apr 8, The Rev. Jimmy Swaggart was defrocked as a minister of the Assemblies of God after he rejected an order from the church's national leaders to stop preaching for a year amid reports he'd consorted with a prostitute.
1988 Apr 8, Pres. Reagan issued Executive Order 12365 ordering the immediate blocking of all property and interests in property of the Government of Panama.
1988 Apr 10, The hijackers of a Kuwait Airways jetliner vowed to carry out a "slow, quiet massacre" of their hostages, one day after one captive was killed aboard the plane parked in Larnaca, Cyprus.
1988 Apr 11, "The Last Emperor" won best picture at the 60th annual Academy Awards ceremony; Cher won best actress for "Moonstruck," Michael Douglas best actor for "Wall Street."
1988 Apr 11, Hijackers of a Kuwait Airways jetliner killed a second hostage, dumping his body onto the ground in Larnaca, Cyprus.
1988 Apr 11, In Amsterdam the Royal Concert building (Concertgebouw) reopened.
1988 Apr 12, The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issued a patent to Harvard University for a genetically engineered mouse, the first time a patent was granted for an animal life form.
1988 Apr 12, Sonny Bono elected mayor of Palm Springs, Calif.
1988 Apr 12, Alan Stewart Paton (b.1903), South African writer (Cry The Beloved Country), died. He founded and served as president of the Liberal Party (1953-68).
1988 Apr 13, A commandeered Kuwaiti jetliner took off from Cyprus for Algeria, after the pro-Iranian Shiite Muslim hijackers on board freed 12 hostages.
1988 Apr 13, In South Africa Aubrey Jabulani Ndaba, from the Pietermaritzburg area, and Oscar Maleka, from Soweto, were working for the armed wing of the African National Congress when they died in firefights with security forces. In 2005 they became first of 477 missing people to be recovered.
1988 Apr 14, The Japanese Red Army bombed a US military recreational club in Naples. 5 people were killed.
1988 Apr 14, Afghanistan, Pakistan, the United States and the Soviet Union signed agreements providing for the withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan and creation of a nonaligned Afghan state. Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev announced the withdrawal of Soviet troops. The Soviets pulled out of Afghanistan after nine years of fighting. Afghan rebels rejected the pact and continued fighting.
(SFC, 9/28/96, p.A8)(WA, 1997,p.737)(TMC, 1994, p.1988)(AP, 4/14/98)
1988 Apr 15, Former White House spokesman Larry Speakes resigned from Merrill Lynch and Co. less than a week after disclosing that he had, on two occasions, fabricated quotations attributed to President Reagan.
1988 May 15, The Soviet Union began the process of withdrawing its troops from Afghanistan, more than eight years after Soviet forces had entered the country.
(AP, 5/15/98)(HN, 5/15/98)
1988 Apr 16, Abu Jihad, [Khalil al-Wazzir], PLO-leader, was murdered by Israeli assassins in Tunisia. They left the chief strategist of the Palestinian uprising with 170 bullets in his body. The Palestine Liberation Organization accused Israel of assassinating al-Wazir, a top PLO military figure. Palestinians reacted angrily, and at least 14 were shot and killed by Israeli troops during clashes in the occupied Gaza Strip and West Bank. In 2012 Israel admitted responsibility for the killing of Abu Jihad.
(AP, 4/16/98)(AP, 1/22/06)(AP, 11/1/12)
1988 Apr 16, In Forli, Italy, the Red Brigades-PCC killed Italian senator Roberto Ruffilli, an advisor of Italian PM Ciriaco de Mita. After that, the group activities all but ended after massive arrests of its leadership.
1988 Apr 17, Louise Nevelson, the Russian-born sculptor who became one of the world's best-known women artists, died in New York at the age of 88.
1988 Apr 17, The newly-restructured Iraqi Army began a major operation named "Ramadan Mubarak" aimed to clear the Iranians out of the peninsula. The Iranians were expelled from the peninsula within 35 hours, with much of their equipment captured intact.
1988 Apr 18, The United States destroyed two more Iraqi oil platforms, after a mine in the Persian Gulf injured 10 crewmen aboard a U.S. frigate. In 2003 a World Court in a 14-2 decision ruled the US was wrong but doesn't need to pay damages.
1988 Apr 18, San Francisco journalist Stanton Delaplane (80) died at his home on Telegraph Hill. The SF Chronicle Pulitzer Prize-winner was credited with introducing Irish Coffee to the city at the Buena Vista Cafe.
(SSFC, 4/14/13, p.46)
1988 Apr 18, An Israeli court convicted John Demjanjuk, a retired auto worker from Cleveland, of committing war crimes at the Treblinka death camp. Israel's Supreme Court later overturned Demjanjuk's conviction.
1988 Apr 19, Republican George Bush and Democrat Michael Dukakis handily won the New York presidential primaries.
1988 Apr 19, Sarah LaChapelle (56) was found murdered at her home in East Oakland. Gregory Tate (21) was arrested later that day in LaChapelle's stolen Oldsmobile Cutlass. He was convicted in 1992 for her murder and in 1993 was sentenced to death. He had cut off a finger to steal LaChapelle’s wedding and engagement rings. In 2010 the California Supreme Court upheld Tate’s sentence.
1988 Apr 20, The US Senate passed the Civil Liberties Act, a measure providing $20,000 payments to Japanese-Americans interned by the US government during World War II. Pres. Reagan signed it on Aug 10.
(AP, 8/10/97)(SSFC, 4/21/13, DB p.46)
1988 Apr 20, Gunmen who had hijacked a Kuwait Airways jumbo jet were allowed safe passage out of Algeria. An agreement also freed the remaining 31 hostages and ended a 15-day siege in which two passengers were slain.
1988 Apr 20, Hector Felix, a muckraking Mexican journalist, was murdered. He had dubbed Jorge Hank, owner of the Tijuana Agua Caliente Racetrack, as “the Abominable Snowman" for a reputed cocaine habit.
(SSFC, 8/5/07, p.A15)(www.elandar.com/back/fall99/gato.html)
1988 Apr 21, Tennessee Sen. Al Gore gave up his bid for the Democratic presidential nomination, assuring supporters that "there will be other days for me and for the causes that matter to us."
1988 Apr 22, Secretary of State George P. Shultz, visiting the Soviet Union, met with President Mikhail S. Gorbachev, who reportedly criticized the Reagan administration for its "confrontational" approach to U.S.-Soviet relations.
1988 Apr 23, A federal ban on smoking during domestic airline flights of two hours or less went into effect.
(AP, 4/23/98)(WSJ, 1/27/04, p.D12)
1988 Apr 23, A drain valve was left open at the Shell Marsh in Martinez, Ca., and 10,000 barrels of oil (432,000 gallons) poured in the marsh adjoining Peyton Slough. Shell cleaned the mess and paid $20 million in penalties. The marsh was purchased with part of the funds and turned into a regional park.
(SFC, 4/21/98, p.A19-20)(SFC, 4/30/04, p.A17)
1988 Apr 23, Archbishop Michael Ramsey (b.1904), the one hundredth Archbishop of Canterbury (1961-1974), died. In 2009 amateur divers found valuable coins and medallions belonging to the former archbishop in the River Wear, near Durham Cathedral.
1988 Apr 23, Greek cycling champion Kanellos Kanellopoulos pedaled a self-powered aircraft named Daedalus 88 for 74 miles. The MIT Aeronautics and Astronautics Department's Daedalus was a human-powered aircraft flew from Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete, Greece, crashing in the sea just short of the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. Daedalus 87 had crashed on Rogers Dry Lakebed on 17 February 1988, and was rebuilt as a backup.
1988 Apr 24, Three sailors were killed and 22 injured when fire broke out aboard the submarine USS Bonefish off the Florida coast.
1988 Apr 25, "Nightline" went on location to Jerusalem, Israel.
1988 Apr 25, NASA launched space vehicle S-211.
1988 Apr 25, Lygia Clark (b.1920), Brazilian artist, died in Rio de Janeiro. She was often associated with the Brazilian Constructivist movements of the mid-20th century and the Tropicalia movement.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lygia_Clark)(Econ, 10/22/16, p.75)
1988 Apr 25, To the cheers of spectators, a judge in Jerusalem sentenced John Demjanjuk to death after the retired Ohio autoworker was convicted of being "Ivan the Terrible," a Nazi death camp guard who had killed tens of thousands of people. Demjanjuk's conviction was later overturned.
1988 Apr 26, Vice President George Bush locked up the Republican presidential nomination with an easy win in the Pennsylvania primary. Massachusetts Gov. Michael Dukakis won the Democratic contest.
1988 Apr 27, The US Senate approved a sweeping trade bill, 63-36, falling short of the two-thirds vote needed to override a threatened veto by President Reagan.
1988 Apr 28, A flight attendant was killed and 61 persons injured when part of the roof of an Aloha Airlines Boeing 737 peeled back during a flight from Hilo to Honolulu.
1988 Apr 29, Molloko, the 1st California condor chick conceived in captivity, was born in the San Diego Zoo.
1988 Apr 29, McDonald's announced it would open its first restaurants in Moscow.
1988 Apr 29, James McCracken (61), US tenor, died.
1988 Apr 29, In Pakistan Pres. Zia-ul Haq dismissed the government Mohammed Khan Junejo on charges of incompetence.
(SFC, 1/30/97, p.A9)
1988 Apr 30, World Exposition, Expo 88 opened in Brisbane, Australia.
1988 Apr 30, Gen. Manuel Noriega, waving a machete, vowed at a rally to keep fighting U.S. efforts to oust him as Panama's military ruler.
1988 Apr, Microsoft surpassed Lotus to become the number one computer software vendor.
(Wired, 12/98, p.196)
1988 Apr, In China Zhu Rongji (b.1928) was named Mayor of Shanghai.
(SFC, 3/18/98, p.A12)
1988 May 1, Newsweek magazine reported that, according to a memoir by former White House chief of staff Donald Regan (1918-2003), astrology had influenced the planning of President Reagan's schedule. Regan's memoir was titled "For the Record: From Wall Street to Washington."
(AP, 5/1/98)(WSJ, 6/11/03, p.A1)(SFC, 6/12/03, p.A25)
1988 May 2, Jackson Pollock's "Search" sold for $4,800,000.
1988 May 2, Cincinnati Reds baseball manager Pete Rose was suspended for 30 days by National League president A. Bartlett Giamatti, two days after Rose shoved an umpire during a game won by the New York Mets, 6-5. Giamatti died a week later. In 1998 his musings on baseball were published as "A Great and Glorious Game," ed. by Kenneth S. Robson.
(AP, 5/2/98)(SFEC, 7/5/98, BR p.9)
1988 May 3, The White House acknowledged that first lady Nancy Reagan had used astrological advice to help schedule her husband's activities. The unflattering revelations surfaced in a yet-to-be published memoir by former chief of staff Donald Regan.
1988 May 3, Milton A. Caniff (b.1907), US cartoonist (Terry & the Pirates), died.
1988 May 4, As a year-long amnesty program for certain illegal aliens in the United States came to a close, thousands of applicants lined up nationwide on the last day.
1988 May 4, A spectacular explosion occurred at the Shell oil refinery in Norco, La., on the Mississippi river just north of New Orleans. 8 people were killed and over 40 injured.
1988 May 4, Three French hostages were released in Beirut by pro-Iranian kidnappers.
1988 May 5, The Rev. Eugene Antonio Marino became the nation's first black Roman Catholic archbishop during an installation Mass in the Atlanta Civic Center. He stepped down in July 1990 because of a two-year affair with Columbus resident Vicki Long.
1988 May 5, Michael Shaara (b.1928), author of the Civil War novel "Killer Angels," died of heart disease.
(SFEC, 6/21/98, p.D5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Shaara)
1988 May 7, Winning Colors won the 114th running of the Kentucky Derby, becoming the third filly to win the event.
1988 May 8, The 2nd American Comedy Award went to Robin Williams and Tracey Ullman. The event was broadcast on May 17.
1988 May 8, French President Francois Mitterrand was elected to a second seven-year term, defeating conservative challenger Jacques Chirac.
1988 May 8, Science fiction author Robert A. Heinlein died in Carmel, Calif., at age 80.
1988 May 9, Education Secretary William J. Bennett announced he would leave his position in mid-September.
1988 May 10, The Edgar Degas sculpture "Danseresie of 14" (Little Dancer at 14 years of Age) sold for $10,120,000. In 1996 it sold for nearly $12 million.
(http://tinyurl.com/lx277)(SFC, 11/13/96, p.A3)
1988 May 10, French President Francois Mitterrand named Socialist Michel Rocard to be premier following Mitterrand's decisive victory in France's presidential election.
1988 May 10, In Poland an eight-day strike by workers at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdansk ended without an agreement.
1988 May 11, Master spy Harold "Kim" Philby, the notorious "Third Man" of a British espionage ring, died in the Soviet Union at age 76. In 2014 Ben Macintyre authored “A Spy Among Friends: Kim Philby and the Great Betrayal" and Tim Milne authored “Kim Philby: The Unknown Story of the KGB’s Master Spy."
(AP, 5/11/98)(Econ, 4/19/14, p.76)
1988 May 11, Fans of Irving Berlin paid tribute on his 100th birthday with celebrations that included a gala at New York's Carnegie Hall.
1988 May 12, Secretary of State George P. Shultz and Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze, meeting in Geneva, resolved nearly all remaining questions on an intermediate-range missile treaty.
1988 May 13, The U.S. Senate voted 83-6 to order the U.S. military to enter the war against illegal drug trafficking, approving a plan to give the Navy the power to stop drug boats on the high seas and make arrests.
1988 May 13, Chet Baker (b1929), jazz trumpet player, died in Amsterdam after "falling" from a hotel window. A documentary on his life: "Let’s Get Lost," produced and directed by Bruce Weber, was released in  1989. Baker played with Gerry Mulligan in a pianoless quartet that brought him fame as a leading member of the West Coast "cool school." Baker’s personal memoir "As Though I Had Wings" was written in the late 70s and published in 1997. In 2000 J. De Valk authored "Chet Baker: His Life and Music." In 2002 James Gavin authored the biography "Deep in a Dream."
(SFEM, 10/1/00, p.4)(WSJ, 5/16/02, p.D7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chet_Baker)
1988 May 14, Twenty-seven people, most of them teen-agers, were killed when their church bus collided with a pickup truck going the wrong way on a highway near Carrollton, Ky. The driver of the truck, Larry Mahoney, was convicted of manslaughter and sentenced to 16 years' imprisonment; he was released in September 1999.
1988 May 14, Peru’s military was involved in the massacre of at least 26 peasants in the Andean village of Cayara. A week later the military executed 3 more peasants, before systematically killing 8 witnesses. In 2005 a Peruvian judge ordered the arrest of 118 current and retired military officials for the slayings.
1988 May 15, The Soviet Union began the process of withdrawing its 115,000 troops from Afghanistan, more than eight years after Soviet forces had entered the country.
(AP, 5/15/98)(HN, 5/15/98)
1988 May 16, US Surgeon General C. Everett Koop released a report declaring nicotine was addictive in ways similar to heroin and cocaine.
1988 May 16, The US Supreme Court ruled that police can search discarded garbage without a search warrant.
1988 May 17, The US Commerce Department reported that a record level of export sales gave the US its lowest monthly trade deficit in three years in March 1988, totaling $9.7 billion.
1988 May 18, Daws Butler (b.1916), cartoon voice (Yogi Bear, Huckleberry Hound), died.
1988 May 18, A cheering crowd in the Soviet town of Termez greeted the first Soviet soldiers as they withdrew from Afghanistan. Experts agree that at least 40,000-50,000 Soviets lost their lives in action, besides the wounded, suicides, and murders. Mujahideen continued to fight against Najibullah's regime. Some 130,000 Red Army troops fought in Afghanistan and 15,000 were lost.
(AP, 5/18/98)(www.afghan, 5/25/98)(SFC, 10/18/01, p.A3)
1988 May 19, Carlos Lehder Rivas, co-founder of Colombia's Medellin drug cartel, was convicted in Jacksonville, Fla., of smuggling more than 3 tons of cocaine into the US.
1988 May 20, 30-year-old Laurie Dann walked into a Winnetka, Ill., elementary school classroom, where she shot to death 8-year-old Nicholas Corwin and wounded several other children. After wounding a young man at his home, Dann took her own life.
1988 May 21, Risen Star won the Preakness Stakes.
1988 May 21, The Soviet news agency Tass reported that the Communist Party leaders of Armenia and Azerbaijan had been dismissed after fresh outbreaks of ethnic tensions in the two southern Soviet republics.
1988 May 22, Janos Kadar, installed by the Soviet Union as head of Hungary's Communist Party in 1956, was replaced by Prime Minister Karoly Grosz.
1988 May 23, Less than a week before a scheduled superpower summit in Moscow, Secretary of State George Shultz went to Capitol Hill to ask for a prompt Senate vote to ratify the intermediate-range nuclear missile treaty.
1988 May 24, President Reagan vetoed legislation that would have strengthened the nation's ability to defend itself and its industries against trading practices of other nations that were deemed unfair.
1988 May 24, Vice President George Bush and Michael Dukakis won the Idaho presidential primaries.
1988 May 25, President Reagan left for a trip to the Soviet Union and a superpower summit with Mikhail S. Gorbachev.
1988 May 26, The National Hockey League's Edmonton Oilers completed a four-game sweep of the Boston Bruins to capture their fourth Stanley Cup in five seasons.
1988 May 26, In San Francisco Lu Hurley’s $20 helicopter rides were grounded at Pier 43.
(SSFC, 5/26/13, DB p.42)
1988 May 26, The New England Journal of Medicine reported that the 1st NYC cases of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever struck 4 people in the Bronx between May and July of 1987.
1988 May 27, Two days before the start of the Moscow summit, the US Senate voted 93-5 to ratify a treaty eliminating medium-range nuclear missiles.
1988 May 28, Melvin J. Oliver (b.1910), US jazz composer (Sy Oliver), orchestra leader, died in NYC.
1988 May 28, On the eve of the Moscow summit, Soviet television aired a 34-minute interview with President Reagan in which he pledged to make human rights "agenda item number one."
1988 May 29, President Reagan began his first visit to the Soviet Union as he arrived in Moscow for a superpower summit with Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev.
1988 May 29, Pakistan Pres. Zia ul-Haq fired government and disbanded the parliament.
1988 May 30, On the second day of the Moscow summit, Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev, giving a toast at a state dinner, called for closer contacts with Americans, adding, "This should be done without interfering in domestic affairs, without sermonizing or imposing one's views and ways."
1988 May 31, On the third day of the Moscow superpower summit, Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev said maybe it was "time to bang our fists on the table" to complete work on a strategic arms treaty. President Reagan responded: "I'll do anything that works." Reagan received a standing ovation from students at Moscow Univ. following a short speech with questions and answers.
(AP, 5/31/98)(HN, 5/31/99)(WSJ, 6/18/04, p.A11)
1988 May, Fires ignited in Yellowstone Nat’l. Park by lightning. The fires expanded to become the largest single fire in the US since the Peshtigo inferno of 1873. The fires lasted to Sep.
(HFA, '96, p.71)(SFC, 6/22/98, p.A4)
1988 May, In Malaysia construction of the North-South Expressway was begun.
(Hem., 1/96, p.97)
1988 Jun 1, President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev concluded their Moscow summit by exchanging documents of ratification of the intermediate-range nuclear arms treaty they'd signed the previous December.
1988 Jun 2, The publishers of Consumer Reports magazine called for a ban on the Suzuki Samurai, a popular sport utility vehicle that the magazine said tended to roll over in sudden turns; American Suzuki Motor Corporation defended the vehicle as safe.
1988 Jun 2, San Francisco’s St. Ignatius College Preparatory School announced plans to accept young women beginning in the Fall of 1999.
(SSFC, 6/2/13, DB p.46)
1988 Jun 2, Horace A. Hildreth (b.1901), former governor of Maine (1945-49), died.
1988 Jun 3, President Reagan returned home from the superpower summit in Moscow after a stopover in London.
1988 Jun 3, Amber Swartz-Garcia (7) was abducted from her home in Pinole, Ca. In 2009 police identified cab driver Curtis Dean Anderson (d.2007), the 1999 killer of Xiana Fairchild(7), as the person who abducted Amber Swartz-Garcia, drove her to Arizona and killed her. Amber’s body was never found.
(SFC, 1/29/99, p.A18)(SFEC, 4/2/00, p.B2)(SFC, 7/7/09, p.A1,7)
1988 Jun 4, US Secretary of State George Shultz flew to Jordan, where he met with King Hussein. Afterward, Shultz said the Jordanian monarch was reluctant to engage in peace talks with Israel unless Israel agreed to give up land on the West Bank.
1988 Jun 5, In the 42nd Tony Awards Madame Butterfly won for best play and Phantom of the Opera won for best musical.
1988 Jun 5, Clarence Pendleton (57), chairman of the US Civil Rights Commission, died.
1988 Jun 6, Morton Thiokol Inc., which built the booster rocket involved in the Challenger explosion in 1986, announced it would not bid to build the next generation of rocket motors for the nation's manned space shuttles.
1988 Jun 6, In NYC 2 large snapping turtles were found in a Bronx sewage plant.
1988 Jun 7, Massachusetts Gov. Michael Dukakis clinched the Democratic presidential nomination by defeating the Rev. Jesse Jackson in the New Jersey, California, Montana and New Mexico primaries.
1988 Jun 8, The judge in the Iran-Contra conspiracy case ruled that Oliver North, John Poindexter, Richard Secord and Albert Hakim had to be tried separately.
1988 Jun 8, Nippon Airways announced that painting eyeballs on Jets cut bird collisions by 20%.
1988 Jun 9, The US House ethics committee met in closed session to discuss whether to formally investigate charges that Speaker Jim Wright's financial dealings may have violated House rules.
1988 Jun 9, Cyril Magnin (88), San Francisco’s “merchant prince," died of cardiac failure.
(SSFC, 6/9/13, DB p.46)
1988 Jun 10, The US House ethics committee announced it had voted unanimously to conduct a preliminary inquiry into allegations concerning the conduct of Speaker Jim Wright.
1988 Jun 10, Author Louis L'Amour died in Los Angeles at age 80. He wrote 116 western novels. L’Amour trained troops in survival and later fought in the European theater in tank destroyers. His early life was filled with the same type of adventures that he wrote about. Due to economic problems and an adventuresome spirit, L’Amour left his Jamestown, N.D., home when he was 15 and spent the next several decades tramping the West and sailing the world. He worked at just about everything that would keep him alive. His writings was just beginning to be published when the war started.
(AP, 6/10/98)(USAT, 6/10/98, p.1D)(HNQ, 7/15/01)
1988 Jun 11, Preakness winner Risen Star captured the Belmont Stakes with a time second only to its father, thoroughbred legend Secretariat.
1988 Jun 11, Nathan Cook (b.1950), TV actor (Hotel), died of an allergic reaction.
1988 Jun 11, Nelson Mandela spoke at Wembley Stadium, London, for the Freedomfest.
1988 Jun 11, Giuseppe Saragat (89), president of Italy (1964-71), died.
1988 Jun 12, In runoff elections in France, President Francois Mitterrand's Socialist Party fell short of a majority in the National Assembly. But a right-wing coalition also failed to retain its legislative control.
1988 Jun 13, A US federal jury found cigarette manufacturer Liggett Group liable in the lung-cancer death of New Jersey resident Rose Cipollone, but innocent of misrepresenting the risks of smoking. An appeals court later overturned the jury's award of $400,000 and ordered a new trial; the family dropped the lawsuit in 1992.
1988 Jun 14, Howard Baker made the surprise announcement that he would resign as President Reagan's White House chief of staff on July 1 because of "personal circumstances."
1988 Jun 15, PanAmSat under Rene Anselmo (d.1995) launched its 1st satellite using $60 mil from Anselmo’s sale of Spanish Int’l. Network. He built PanAmSat into the largest private satellite company. It was sold to Hughes Electronics in 1996.
(SFC, 9/20/96, p.E2)(http://tinyurl.com/7rp9z)
1988 Jun 15, Hong Kong announced a clampdown on "boat people," saying newly arriving Vietnamese refugees would be incarcerated and returned to Vietnam if they could not prove that they had fled religious or political persecution.
1988 Jun 16, Impeached and ousted Arizona Gov. Evan Mecham and his brother, Willard, were found innocent by a Phoenix jury of concealing a $350,000 campaign loan.
1988 Jun 17, Leaders of the world's seven biggest industrial democracies began arriving in Toronto for their annual economic summit, with the host, Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, forecasting progress on dismantling farm subsidies and alleviating Third World debt.
1988 Jun 18, Vice President George Bush launched a sharp attack against Democratic presidential candidate Michael Dukakis, accusing the Massachusetts governor of coddling criminals by allowing some convicts out of prison on weekend furloughs.
1988 Jun 18, Turkey’s PM Turgut Ozal survived an attempted assassination. He had worked to eliminate the black market in cigarettes and suspected the cigarette smuggling mafia.
(WSJ, 2/11/99, p.A24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turgut_%C3%96zal)
1988 Jun 19, Leaders of the world's seven wealthiest industrial democracies opened a three-day economic summit in Toronto.
1988 Jun 19, Michael Jackson led a rock concert in West Berlin.
1988 Jun 20, The US Supreme Court unanimously upheld a New York City law making it illegal for private clubs to generally exclude women and minorities.
1988 Jun 21, The Roger Rabbit cartoon character debuted in the film "Who Framed Roger Rabbit?"
1988 Jun 21, The Los Angeles Lakers repeated as NBA champions as they beat the Detroit Pistons, 108-105.
1988 Jun 21, Leaders of the world's seven richest nations concluded their three-day summit in Toronto.
1988 Jun 22, Singer Dennis Day, Jack Benny's sidekick, died at age 71.
1988 Jun 22, Gay rights activist Leonard Matlovich, discharged from the U.S. Air Force because of his homosexuality, died at age 44.
1988 Jun 23, NASA climatologist James Hansen brought the greenhouse effect to the attention of the American public when he told Congress that worldwide temperature increases were probably a sign of human alteration of the atmosphere.
(SFC,12/12/97, p.A13)(SFC, 6/23/08, p.A3)
1988 Jun 23, The Yellowstone Fire began and by Sep 11 burned some 1.6 million acres in Idaho and Montana.
(SFC, 10/30/03, p.A15)
1988 Jun 23, Pope John Paul II began his second papal visit to Austria, where he met with President Kurt Waldheim, despite controversy over Waldheim's alleged involvement in Nazi war crimes.
1988 Jun 24, Pope John Paul II, on a visit to Austria, condemned Nazism during a stopover at the Mauthausen death camp.
1988 Jun 25, American-born Mildred Gillars, better known during World War II as "Axis Sally" for her Nazi propaganda broadcasts, died in Columbus, Ohio, at age 87. (Gillars had served 12 years in prison for treason.)
1988 Jun 26, Three people were killed when a new Airbus A-320 jetliner carrying more than 130 people crashed into a forest during an air show demonstration flight in Mulhouse, France.
1988 Jun 26, The Matignon Agreements were agreements signed in the Hôtel Matignon by Jean-Marie Tjibaou and Jacques Lafleur between loyalists who wanted to keep New Caledonia as a part of the French Fifth Republic, and separatists, who did not. The agreements were arranged under the aegis of the Government of France as a result of discussions and compromises arranged by Christian Blanc, the negotiator for Michel Rocard's government.
1988 Jun 27, Mike Tyson retained the undisputed heavyweight crown as he knocked out Michael Spinks 91 seconds into the first round of a championship fight in Atlantic City, N.J.
1988 Jun 27, Fifty-seven people were killed in a train collision in Paris.
1988 Jun 28, The US federal government sued the International Brotherhood of Teamsters to force reforms on the nation's largest labor union. The two sides reached a settlement in March, 1989.
1988 Jun 29, The US Supreme Court, in Morrison v. Olson, upheld the power of independent counsels in a 7-1 decision to prosecute illegal acts by high-ranking government officials, ruling the 1978 special prosecutor law did not violate the Constitution.
(AP, 6/29/99)(AP, 6/29/08)
1988 Jun 30, Renegade Roman Catholic Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre consecrated four bishops in defiance of papal authority; the Vatican announced the excommunication of all five.
1988 Jun 30, There was a surprising display of "glasnost" during a Soviet Communist Party conference as delegate Vladimir I. Melnikov bluntly criticized President Andrei A. Gromyko and other longtime Kremlin figures.
1988 Jul 1, A four-day national conference of Soviet Communist Party members ended in Moscow, with Mikhail S. Gorbachev winning approval for sweeping changes.
1988 Jul 3, The US Navy USS Vincennes shot down an Iranian Airbus A-300 in the Persian Gulf from the cruiser ship Vincennes shortly after it took off from Bandar Abbas for Dubai in the United Arab Emirates. All 290 people aboard were killed after the crew of the Vincennes misidentified the plane as an Iranian F-14 fighter. In 1996 the US paid $131.8 million in compensation of which half would go directly to the families of the people killed. Iran filed suit in World Court in 1989 and settled out of court in Feb, 1996.
(WSJ, 2/23/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 4/26/96, p.A-14)(AP 7/3/97)(AP, 7/03/10)
1988 Jul 5, US Attorney General Edwin Meese III announced he would resign, saying he had been vindicated by an independent prosecutor's 14-month probe into his official conduct.
1988 Jul 6, Medical waste and other debris began washing up on seashores near New York City, forcing the closing of several popular beaches.
1988 Jul 6, In Mexican elections the PRI declared itself the early winner without an official vote count. The true results of the election were never made public. Gortari, candidate for the ruling Institutional Revolutionary Party, was losing badly to opposition candidate Cuauhtemoc Cardenas.
1988 Jul 6, A series of explosions and fires destroyed the Piper Alpha North Sea oil drilling platform. 167 North Sea oil workers were killed.
(AP, 7/6/98)(SFC, 8/9/04, p.B6)
1988 Jul 7, Russia’s PHOBOS 1 Mars Orbiter and lander was launched. Contact was lost on September 2, 1988.
(SFC, 11/19/96, p.B1)(www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/mars/space_missions.html)
1988 Jul 7, The European Parliament adopted a resolution condemning brutalities against Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh.
1988 Jul 7, The candidate of Mexico's ruling party, Carlos Salinas de Gortari, claimed a "national victory" one day after presidential elections that opponents charged were riddled by fraud.
1988 Jul 8, Iran's parliamentary speaker, Hashemi Rafsanjani, said his nation would not seek revenge against the United States for shooting down an Iranian jetliner over the Persian Gulf, killing 290 people.
1988 Jul 9, Jackie Presser (61), general president of the Teamsters Union, died in Lakewood, Ohio. His story is included in the book: "Devil’s Pact, Inside the World of the Teamsters Union" by F.C. Duke Zeller.
(AP, 7/9/98)(SFEC, 1/5/97, BR p.6)
1988 Jul 9, Dog trainer Barbara Woodhouse died in Buckinghamshire, England, at age 78.
1988 Jul 10, Lester Garnier (30), an off-duty SF vice cop, was shot and killed in a Walnut Creek, Ca., parking lot. His murder remained unsolved and a new investigation was begun in 1998. Sgt. Robert Guinan allegedly spread rumors that Inspector Vince Repetto was responsible. Repetto sued the police dept. In 2008 Walnut creek police identified Catherine Kuntz (44) of Florida as a prime suspect in the murder. Kuntz was deported to Scotland in Dec 2008.
(SFC, 5/21/98, p.A1)(SFC, 11/7/98, p.A17)(SFC, 6/4/08, p.A1)(SFC, 2/2/09, p.A11)
1988 Jul 10, Opposition party activists in Mexico blocked a bridge linking their country to the United States, charging that Mexico's recent presidential election was marked by widespread fraud.
1988 Jul 11, Nine people were killed when three Abu Nidal terrorists attacked hundreds of tourists aboard a Greek cruise ship, the City of Poros, which was steaming toward a marina in suburban Athens.
1988 Jul 12, The American League beat the National League 2-1 in the All-Star game played in Cincinnati.
1988 Jul 12, Democratic presidential candidate Michael S. Dukakis tapped Texas Sen. Lloyd Bentsen as his running mate.
1988 Jul 12, Russia’s PHOBOS 2 Flyby and lander was launched. It failed within 480 miles of Mar’s moon Phobos.
(SFC, 11/19/96, p.B1)(www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/mars/space_missions.html)
1988 Jul 13, Final results of Mexico's recent presidential election were released, giving the victory to the candidate of the governing party, Carlos Salinas de Gortari. Opponents called election "stolen."
1988 Jul 14, Speaking before the U.N. Security Council, Iran's foreign minister, Ali-Akbar Velayati, denounced the U.S. downing of an Iranian jetliner as "a barbaric massacre." Vice President Bush replied that the U.S.S. Vincennes had fired in self-defense.
1988 Jul 14, The Soviet press agency Tass reported that Azerbaijan has rejected an attempt by Nagorno-Karabakh, a predominantly Armenian enclave, to secede and join Armenia. Some 200,000 demonstrated in Soviet Armenia for the incorporation of Nagorno-Karabakh.
1988 Jul 15, The leadership of the Teamsters Union chose William J. McCarthy to fill out the remaining term of the late Jackie Presser as president, narrowly rejecting Secretary-Treasurer Weldon Mathis, Presser's hand-picked successor.
1988 Jul 16, The Rev. Jesse Jackson arrived in Atlanta for the Democratic national convention, telling cheering supporters he was seeking "shared responsibility" with nominee-apparent Michael Dukakis.
1988 Jul 17, Michael Dukakis arrived in Atlanta to claim the Democratic nomination for president, saying, "We're working hard to make sure we have a good convention, a strong and united party."
1988 Jul 18, Texas Treasurer Ann Richards delivered the keynote address at the Democratic national convention in Atlanta, needling Republican nominee-apparent George Bush as having been "born with a silver foot in his mouth."
1988 Jul 18, Abu Nidal terrorists killed 9 on the City of Poros cruise ship.
1988 Jul 19, Jesse Jackson brought his 1988 presidential campaign to an emotionally charged close at the Democratic National Convention in Atlanta, telling party faithful to unite because "the only time we win is when we come together."
1988 Jul 20, Massachusetts Gov. Michael Dukakis received the Democratic presidential nomination at the party's convention in Atlanta.
1988 Jul 20, Iranian leader Ayatollah Khomeini accepted a truce with Iraq, even though he said the decision was like drinking poison.
1988 Jul 21, Massachusetts Gov. Michael Dukakis accepted the Democratic presidential nomination at the party's convention in Atlanta, declaring, "this election isn't about ideology; it's about competence."
1988 Jul 21, Canada’s Multiculturalism Act of 1988 replaced a previous policy of assimilation with one of acceptance of diversity.
(Econ, 11/18/06, p.39)(www.pch.gc.ca/progs/multi/policy/act_e.cfm)
1988 Jul 22, Iran and Iraq said they would send their foreign ministers to New York to meet with U.N. Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar, after Iran said it would accept a U.N. cease-fire resolution.
1988 Jul 23, In his weekly radio address, President Reagan responded to the just-completed Democratic national convention by accusing Democrats of "singing the same sad song they sang four years ago."
1988 Jul 23, Iran accused Iraq of pushing deep into Iranian territory and using chemical weapons. The March 16 Iraqi chemical attack at Halabja killed thousands and in 1999 was still causing genetic damage and deaths.
(AP, 7/23/97)(USAT, 3/24/99, p.18A)
1988 Jul 24, On the campaign trail, Republican George Bush heard chants of "ERA," a reference to the proposed Equal Rights Amendment, from members of a professional women's group in Albuquerque, N.M. Democratic nominee Michael Dukakis was heckled by anti-abortion protesters in St. Louis.
1988 Jul 25, A judge in New York ordered the feuding San Diego Yacht Club and a New Zealand challenger to settle the battle for the America's Cup with a September race. The Americans used a two-hulled catamaran to easily defeat the New Zealanders' monohull, setting off a legal dispute that ended two years later in victory for the American team.
1988 Jul 26, U.N. Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar met twice with Iran's foreign minister in the first formal talks about a cease-fire for the eight-year war between Iran and Iraq.
1988 Jul 27, U.N. Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar held separate peace talks with the foreign ministers of Iraq and Iran on a cease-fire in the eight-year-old Persian Gulf war.
1988 Jul 28, Both houses of Congress overwhelmingly approved some $6 billion in aid for drought-stricken farmers. The US drought shrank the corn harvest by 31%.
(AP, 7/28/98)(WSJ, 8/4/05, p.A1)
1988 Jul 28, The Pentagon said that its precautions were enough to protect against accidents even though a safety review said that research into chemical and biological weapons could be dangerous to surrounding communities.
1988 Jul 28, Jordan cancelled a $1.3 billion development plan in West Bank.
1988 Jul 29, FDIC bailed out 1st Republic Bank, Dallas, with $4 billion.
1988 Jul 29, NASA officials delayed a critical test-firing of the space shuttle Discovery's main engines another three days. The test on Aug. 10 was judged a success.
1988 Jul 30, Jordan's King Hussein dissolved his country's lower house of Parliament, half of whose 60 members were from the Israeli-occupied West Bank. Hussein renounced sovereignty over the West Bank to the PLO.
1988 Jul 31, The last US Playboy Club closed in Lansing, Mich.
1988 Jul 31, In a televised speech, Jordan's King Hussein called for an independent Palestinian state in the Israeli-occupied territories as he told the Palestinians to take affairs into their own hands. Hussein renounced claims to the West Bank, paving the way for new elections and reforms.
(HN, 7/31/98)(AP, 1/23/13)
1988 Jul, Captain Clay Lacy took off on a round the world flight from Boeing Field, Seattle, in a Boeing 747SP and returned in 36 hours, 54 min., and 15 sec.
(Hem., 2/96, p.44)
1988 Jul, Petr Taborsky, a Czech citizen, discovered that Clinoptilolite, a clay substance, will absorb ammonium when heated past 850 degrees as a student at the Univ. of South Florida. He later received a federal patent for his work, but was also charged by the Univ. of South Florida for theft and later violation of probation for using his disputed notebooks. He refused to sign over his patent to the school and was sentenced to 3 1/2 years in state prison.
(SFC, 6/22/96, p.A9)
1988 Jul, The apartheid regime in South Africa, having entered into discussions with the ANC, agreed to elections in Namibia in exchange for the withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola.
1988 Aug 1, Conservative commentator Rush Limbaugh began broadcasting his nationally syndicated radio program.
1988 Aug 1, Iran said it would honor an immediate cease-fire in its eight-year-old war with Iraq.
1988 Aug 2, Despite threats of a veto, President Reagan promised reluctantly to allow a plant-closing notification bill to become law, accusing Democrats of "political shenanigans."
1988 Aug 2, Joe Carcione (b.1914), US produce expert known on radio, TV and newspapers as the Green Grocer, died in Burlingame, Ca.
(SSFC, 7/28/13, DB p.46)
1988 Aug 2, Raymond Carver (b.1938), American poet, short story writer (Furious Season), died. His books included “What We Talk About When We Talk About Love" (1981). In 2009 Carol Sklenicka authored “Raymond Carver: A Writer’s Life."
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raymond_Carver)(SSFC, 11/22/09, Books p.F1)
1988 Aug 3, The Soviet Union released Mathias Rust, the West German who landed a small plane in Moscow's Red Square in May 1987.
1988 Aug 4, Hertz car rental agreed to pay out $23 million in a consumer fraud case.
1988 Aug 5, Treasury Secretary James A. Baker III announced he was resigning to take over the presidential election campaign of Vice President George Bush. Nicholas F. Brady was nominated to take Baker's place at Treasury.
1988 Aug 6, As many as 400 drowned in India when a ferry capsized in the Ganges River.
1988 Aug 6, Iraq's president said his country would agree to a cease-fire with Iran, provided the Iranians promised to hold direct talks immediately after the truce took effect.
1988 Aug 7, The Writers Guild of America ended their 6 months strike.
1988 Aug 7, Iranian Foreign Minister Ali Akbar Velayati signaled his government's acceptance of Iraq's modified peace proposal aimed at bringing about a cease-fire in the Persian Gulf.
1988 Aug 8, A renovated NYC Central Park Zoo reopened after 4 years.
1988 Aug 8, Sec. of State Shultz narrowly escaped an assassination attempt in Bolivia.
1988 Aug 8, U.N. Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar announced a cease-fire between Iran and Iraq. This became an Iraqi national holiday until it was abolished in 2003.
(SFC, 2/24/9, p.A9)(AP, 8/8/98)(AP, 7/13/03)
1988 Aug 8-1988 Aug 13, Police in Burma (Myanmar) killed nearly 3,000 protesters in the streets of Rangoon. The massive nationwide strikes became known as “8888."
(SFEC, 1/19/96, Par. p.5)(SFEC, 10/22/00, p.T8)(Econ, 8/10/13, p.38)
1988 Aug 9, President Reagan nominated Lauro Cavazos to be secretary of education; Cavazos became the first Hispanic to serve in the Cabinet.
1988 Aug 9, Hockey star Wayne Gretzky of the Edmonton Oilers was traded to the Los Angeles Kings.
1988 Aug 10, President Reagan signed the Civil Liberties Act, a measure providing $20,000 payments to Japanese-Americans interned by the U.S. government during World War II.
(AP, 8/10/97)(SFEC, 8/9/98, p.A1)
1988 Aug 10, Adela Rogers St. John (b.1894), journalist (Free Soul, Honeycomb), died.
1988 Aug 11, The U.S. Senate confirmed Dick Thornburgh to succeed Edwin Meese III as attorney general, by a vote of 85-0.
1988 Aug 11, Jean-Pierre Ponnelle (b.1932), French opera director (Figaro, Barber of Seville, numerous operas in Europe, Bayreuth, Met Opera), died in Munich, Germany.
1988 Aug 12, The controversial movie "The Last Temptation of Christ," directed by Martin Scorsese, opened in nine cities despite objections by some Christians who felt the film was sacrilegious.
1988 Aug 12, Richard Thornburgh became US Attorney General.
1988 Aug 12, Michel Basquiat (b.1960), NY artist of Haitian descent, died of a drug overdose at age 27. His work included "Academic Study of Male Figure" (1983) and "Boy and Dog in a Johhnypump." In 1996 Julian Schnabel made a film documentary titled "Basquiat." In 1998 Phoebe Hoban published "Basquiat: A Quick Killing in Art."
(SFC, 8/17/96, p.E1)(SFC, 8/16/96, p.D3)(SFEC, 7/26/98, BR p.4)
1988 Aug 12, Sein Lwin resigned from the presidency of Burma. He was succeeded by a civilian, Maung Maung, who in turn was ousted by the military after just a month in office.
1988 Aug 13, Vice President George Bush contemplated a list of potential running mates as Republicans gathered in New Orleans for their party's national convention.
1988 Aug 14, Pres. Reagan arrived in New Orleans on the eve of the Republican national convention that would nominate VP George Bush, to be its choice to succeed him.
1988 Aug 14, Enzo Ferrari (b.1898), Italian sportscar manufacturer (Ferrari), died.
1988 Aug 15, President Reagan bade a sentimental farewell on the first night of the Republican national convention in New Orleans, and praised the man destined to succeed him, Vice President George Bush.
1988 Aug 16, VP George Bush tapped Indiana Sen. Dan Quayle to be his running mate.
1988 Aug 17, Vice President George Bush was nominated for president at the Republican National Convention in New Orleans.
1988 Aug 17, The US FDA approved Minoxidil as a hair loss treatment.
1988 Aug 17, Franklin D. Roosevelt Jr. (Rep-D-NY, 1949-55), died on his 74th birthday in Poughkeepsie, NY.
1988 Aug 17, Pakistani President Mohammad Zia ul-Haq (63) and US Ambassador Arnold Raphel were killed in a mysterious plane crash. Zia, president from 1977-1988, was responsible for the 1977 overthrow and 1979 death of Premier Bhutto. Zia did much to turn Pakistan towards Islamic fundamentalism. Bhutto’s daughter, Benazir Bhutto, became prime minister in November.
(WSJ, 12/14/95, p.A-1)(AP, 8/17/98)(Econ, 6/14/08, p.103)
1988 Aug 18, Indiana Sen. Dan Quayle was nominated to be George Bush's running mate during the Republican convention in New Orleans; meanwhile, questions were being raised about Quayle's service in the Indiana National Guard during the Vietnam War.
1988 Aug 18, Frederick Ashton (b.1904), Ecuador-born dancer and choreographer, died in Suffolk, England. In 1997 Julie Kavanaugh published "Secret Muses: The Life of Frederic Ashton."
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Ashton)(WSJ, 5/15/97, p.A21)
1988 Aug 18, Hamas published a manifesto calling for a holy war to create an Islamic state from the Jordan River to the Mediterranean Sea, including Israel. It challenged the PLO's claim as the sole representative of the Palestinian people. The Hamas founding charter declared that all Palestine is Islamic trust land, can never be surrendered to non-Muslims and is an integral part of Muslim world.
(SFC, 3/23/04, p.A11)(www.mideastweb.org/hamashistory.htm)
1988 Aug 19, During a news conference in his hometown of Huntington, Ind., Republican vice-presidential nominee Dan Quayle defended his service in the National Guard during the Vietnam War.
1988 Aug 20, Eight British soldiers were killed by an Irish Republican Army land mine that destroyed a military bus near Omagh, County Tyrone, in Northern Ireland.
1988 Aug 20, A cease fire between Iran and Iraq took effect after 8 years of war.
1988 Aug 21, More than 1,000 people were killed in an earthquake on the Nepal-India border.
1988 Aug 22, Speaking to the Veterans of Foreign Wars in Chicago, Vice President George Bush defended the Vietnam-era National Guard service of running mate Dan Quayle, saying, "He did not go to Canada, he did not burn his draft card and he damn sure didn't burn the American flag."
1988 Aug 23, Some striking workers in Poland ended a walkout that had begun a week earlier, but 125 miners barricaded themselves in an underground shaft, vowing to stay until they'd won their demands.
1988 Aug 24, Democratic presidential nominee Michael Dukakis picked up the endorsement of the AFL-CIO while Republican nominee George Bush campaigned in California with President Reagan.
1988 Aug 24, Leonard Frey (b.1938), American actor, died of AIDS. His film roles included “Boys in the Band" (1970) and “Fiddler on the Roof" (1971).
1988 Aug 24, Max Shulman (b.1919), author (Dobie Gillis, Tender Trap), died.
1988 Aug 25, In his sharpest attack yet on the Reagan administration's drug policies, Democratic presidential nominee Michael Dukakis criticized U.S. dealings with Panama's military leader, Gen. Manuel Noriega, as "criminal."
1988 Aug 25, Challenger Center opened its classroom doors in Houston.
1988 Aug 25, NASA launched space vehicle S-214.
1988 Aug 25, Iran and Iraq began talks to end their 8 year war.
1988 Aug 25, A major fire destroyed the historic center of Lisbon, Portugal.
1988 Aug 26, Republican presidential nominee George Bush denounced Democrat Michael Dukakis' criticism of Reagan administration drug policies as "an insult," one day after the Massachusetts governor called U.S. dealings with Panamanian General Manuel Noriega "criminal."
1988 Aug 27, Tens of thousands of civil rights marchers gathered in Washington, D.C., on the eve of the 25th anniversary of Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech.
1988 Aug 28, At least 40 people were killed when three Italian stunt planes collided during an air show at the US Air Base in Ramstein, West Germany, sending flaming debris into the crowd of spectators. Over the next 2 months the death toll rose to 69.
1988 Aug 28, The Yan Hee Polyclinic in Bangkok, Thailand, reported on a new slimming technique. Overweight Thais were suppressing their appetites by sticking lettuce seeds in their ears and pressing them in ten times before meals.
1988 Aug 29, On the presidential campaign trail, Democrat Michael Dukakis sought to counter Republican George Bush's salvos against the Massachusetts prison furlough program, while Bush continued to charge that Dukakis was soft on defense.
1988 Aug 29, In NYC the Macy’s Tap-o-Mania set a Guinness record.
1988 Aug 30, Top aides to Republican presidential nominee George Bush and Democrat Michael Dukakis met in Washington without reaching agreement on a schedule for debates in the fall.
1988 Aug 31, Arbitrator George Nicolau ruled sports owners conspired against free agents.
1988 Aug 31, Fourteen people were killed when a Delta Boeing 727 crashed during takeoff from Dallas-Fort Worth Airport.
1988 Aug 31, A 5-day power blackout of downtown Seattle began.
1988 Aug 31, In South Africa the Khotso House was bombed. Police chief Johan van der Merwe was instructed to blow up the Johannesburg headquarters of the South African Council of Churches, called Khotso House, for harboring anti-apartheid groups. The bombing injured 21 people. He said in 1996 that the instructions came from Law and Order Minister Adriaan Vlok, who told him that the order came directly from Pres. P.W. Botha. In 1997 a document submitted by Vlok said the order to destroy the headquarters came from Pres. Botha. Col. Eugene de Kock testified in 1998 that he was called in by a police general to blowup Khotso House. Vlok testified in 1998 that Botha dictated the bombing. Vlok and van der Merwe were given amnesty in 1999.
(SFC, 11/23/96, p.A9)(SFC, 6/21/97, p.A10)(SFC, 6/4/98, p.A12)(SFC, 7/22/98, p.A11)(SFC, 8/6/99, p.A14)
1988 Aug, In California an FBI sting operation ended in the state capital. Agents posed as Southern businessmen seeking a bill for bond financing of a phony shrimp processing plant. Over the next 6 years 3 former legislative aides were convicted on charges stemming from the sting. State Senators Paul Carpenter, Joseph Montoya, Alan Robbins (D) and Frank Hill (R) went to prison as did GOP Assemblyman Pat Nolan. Two lobbyists were also convicted.
(SFC, 2/11/98, p.A15)
1988 Aug, Summer heat caused poor crops in the US, but in Argentina, Olacyr de Moraes, the world’s biggest soybean farmer reaped a good profit with world grain prices soaring.
(NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.92)
1988 Sep 1, Leonor Sullivan (b.1902), Rep-D-Missouri, (1955-77), died.
1988 Sep 2, Democrat Michael Dukakis welcomed back former top aide John Sasso to his presidential campaign, nearly a year after Sasso resigned because of his role in torpedoing the campaign of Democratic Sen. Joseph Biden.
1988 Sep 3, On the presidential campaign trail, Democrat Michael Dukakis paid a visit to Ellis Island in New York, while Republican George Bush met reporters at his official Washington residence.
1988 Sep 4, Officials in Bangladesh reported that floods had inundated three-quarters of their impoverished nation, claiming at least 882 lives. Monsoon floods left over 3,000 dead this year.
(AP, 9/4/98)(SFC, 8/13/02, p.A15)
1988 Sep 5, On the campaign trail, Republican George Bush continued to link his opponent with "the liberal left," while Democrat Michael Dukakis charged that under a GOP administration, "the rich have become richer, the poor have gotten poorer."
1988 Sep 6, Lee Roy Young became the first African-American Texas Ranger in the force's 165-year history.
1988 Sep 6, A 25-hour drama began as technical problems kept a two-man Soviet space crew from returning to Earth aboard a Soyuz space capsule. The problems were cleared up, and the crew landed safely the next day.
1988 Sep 7, Vice President George Bush startled an American Legion audience in Louisville, Ky., by referring to Sept. 7 as "Pearl Harbor Day," which is actually Dec. 7. Realizing his mistake, Bush said, "Did I say Sept. 7? Sorry about that."
1988 Sep 7, The Security & Exchange Commission accused Drexel of violating security laws.
1988 Sep 7, Seymour (62) and Arlene (54) Tankleff were bludgeoned to death in their Long Island home. Their adopted son, Martin Tankleff (17), initially confessed to the crime after a detective falsely told him the father had implicated him. Martin quickly withdrew the confession, but was sentenced to 50 years following one of the nation’s first televised trials. In 2007 he was released after detectives turned up witnesses that implicated a business partner of his father.
(SFC, 12/28/07, p.A3)(www.courttv.com/news/2007/1228/tankleff_ap.html)
1988 Sep 8, Two nuclear-missile rocket motors were destroyed at an army ammunition plant in Karnack, Texas; they were the first US weapons to be eliminated under an arms reduction treaty with the Soviet Union.
1988 Sep 8, A. Bartlett Giamatti, the National League president, was named to succeed Peter Ueberroth as baseball’s 7th commissioner.
1988 Sep 9, The "Stars and Stripes," a catamaran piloted by Dennis Conner, completed a 2-0 washout of a New Zealand monohull for the America's Cup off San Diego. Conner's victory was eventually upheld in court.
1988 Sep 9, Financial Corp. of America filed for bankruptcy with assets of $33.8 billion.
(SFC, 4/7/01, p.A4)
1988 Sep 10, Gretchen Elizabeth Carlson of Minnesota was crowned Miss America.
1988 Sep 10, Steffi Graf of West Germany achieved tennis' first Grand Slam since Margaret Court in 1970 by winning the U.S. Open women's final.
1988 Sep 10, In Texas Forrest Henderson and Richard Wrotenbery of the Houston Grand Opera chorus were beaten and killed. In 2010 Derrick Jackson (42) was executed for the killings. Jackson claimed that he was unfairly convicted.
(SFC, 7/21/10, p.A7)(http://tinyurl.com/2el6c2p)
1988 Sep 11, Mats Wilander of Sweden won the men's U.S. Open title in New York.
1988 Sep 11, In Haiti 12 people died when the San Juan Bosco Church was burned.
1988 Sep 12, Hurricane Gilbert, called the storm of the century, smashed into the Gulf coast. It slammed into Jamaica with torrential rains and winds of 145 mph, killing 45 people and causing damage estimated at up to $1 billion. It also devastated the Yucatan peninsula and left 225 people dead. The storm hit the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Cuba, Cayman Islands and Mexico before striking Texas.
(NOHY, 3/90, p.181)(AP, 9/12/97)(SFC, 10/10/97, p.A15)
1988 Sep 13, As Hurricane Gilbert made its way toward Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, forecasters reported the barometric pressure of Gilbert's center measured a low of 26.13 inches, making it the strongest hurricane ever recorded in the Western Hemisphere.
1988 Sep 14, Hurricane "Gilbert" slammed into Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula after forcing thousands of residents to flee.
1988 Sep 15, Thousands of coastal residents from Mexico to Louisiana were fleeing to higher ground, a day after Hurricane Gilbert pounded the Yucatan Peninsula.
1988 Sep 16, Hurricane Gilbert slammed into the Mexico coast for the second time in three days, its center sweeping ashore north of La Pesca, 120 miles south of Brownsville, Texas.
1988 Sep 17, South Korea opened the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul. Closing ceremonies for the summer Olympics were held on October 2. North Korea refused to participate. Cuba and Nicaragua stayed away in solidarity.
(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.R2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1988_Summer_Olympics)
1988 Sep 17, Haitian President Henri Hamphy was ousted in a coup; Lt. Gen. Prosper Avril declared himself president the following day.
1988 Sep 18, The Soviet Union won the first gold medal of the Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea, in the women's air rifle event, while U.S. divers picked up silver and bronze medals in women's platform.
1988 Sep 18, In Burma Gen’l. Saw Maung (d.1997 at 69) became chairman of a military junta, called The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC). He had been the army chief of staff and defense minister before leading the coup. The junta took power and put under house arrest Aung San Suu Kyi, the elected president. After years of economic distress the junta released Aung San in 1995 in hopes of gaining foreign economic aid. The junta announced that Burma would henceforth be called Myanmar, and the capital, Rangoon, Yangon.
(www.burmawatch.org/aboutburma.html)(SFC, 6/30/96, A11)(SFC, 7/25/97, p.A18)
1988 Sep 19, Swimmer Janet Evans gave the United States its first gold medal of the Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea, by winning the 400-meter individual medley. US swimmer Greg Louganis hit his head on the springboard during preliminary competition.
1988 Sep 19, Israel succeeded in launching a test satellite, the Ofeq ("Horizon") 1, over the Mediterranean Sea.
1988 Sep 20, Greg Louganis of the United States won the gold medal in springboard diving at the Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea, a day after he injured his head on the board in the preliminary round.
1988 Sep 20, The 43rd General Assembly opened at the United Nations.
1988 Sep 21, The Soviet women's gymnastics team won the gold medal at the Seoul Summer Olympics, with Romania placing second and East Germany third.
1988 Sep 22, Vice President George Bush accepted the endorsement of the Boston Police Patrolmen's Association in the home state of Democrat Michael Dukakis.
1988 Sep 22, The government of Canada apologized for the World War II internment of Japanese-Canadians and promised compensation.
1988 Sep 23, Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard A. Shevardnadze concluded two days of talks in Washington with Secretary of State George P. Shultz on the subjects of arms control and human rights.
1988 Sep 24, Members of the eastern Massachusetts Episcopal diocese elected Barbara C. Harris the first female bishop in the church's history.
1988 Sep 24, In Burma Win Tin (1929-2014) and Aung San Suu Kyi formed the National League for Democracy (NLD) party.
(SFC, 5/7/02, p.A9)(Econ, 5/3/14, p.82)
1988 Sep 24, Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson won the men's 100-meter dash in 9.79 seconds at the Seoul Summer Olympics. He was disqualified three days later for using anabolic steroids.
(AP, 9/24/98)(Econ, 8/2/08, SR p.15)
1988 Sep 25, Republican George Bush and Democrat Michael Dukakis clashed over deficits, drugs and the Pledge of Allegiance in their first presidential debate.
1988 Sep 25, Former first brother Billy Carter died in Plains, Ga., at 51.
1988 Sep 25, Florence Griffith Joyner won the women's 100-meter dash at the Seoul Olympics.
1988 Sep 26, In a farewell speech to the U.N. General Assembly, President Reagan saw "a moment for hope" for peace in the world, citing a new U.S.-Soviet treaty to sharply reduce nuclear arms due during the following year.
1988 Sep 27, Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson left for home in disgrace 3 days after placing first in the men's 100-meter dash at the Seoul Summer Olympics. He was stripped of his gold medal by officials who said he had used anabolic steroids.
1988 Sep 27, Grand jury evidence showed Tawana Brawley fabricated her rape story.
1988 Sep 28, President Reagan vetoed legislation designed to toughen curbs in textile, apparel and shoe imports, arguing it would have "disastrous effects" on the economy at a time when exports were growing.
1988 Sep 29, The space shuttle Discovery blasted off from Cape Canaveral, Fla., marking America's return to manned space flight following the Challenger disaster.
1988 Sep 29, Florence Griffith Joyner and Jackie Joyner-Kersee of the U.S. won their second gold medals of the Seoul Olympics, in the 200-meter and the long jump, respectively.
1988 Sep 29, Britain signed the International Convention Against Torture.
(SFC, 3/25/99, p.A3)
1988 Sep 29, In Chile a 17-year-old girl died from electric torture by military police. This case was later cited by a Spanish judge as part of the 1998 warrant against Gen’l. Pinochet.
(SFC, 11/13/98, p.D3)
1988 Sep 30, Pictures of the solar corona first appeared on the cover of Science Magazine. Prof. Arthur Walker (d.2000 at 64) of Stanford Univ., used X-ray and thin-film telescopes to capture the pictures.
(SSFC, 5/6/01, p.A27)
1988 Sep 30, Joachim Prinz (b.1902), author and Rabbi of Berlin (1926-37), died in New Jersey.
1988 Sep 30, Mikhail S. Gorbachev retired President Andrei A. Gromyko from the Politburo and fired other old-guard leaders in a Kremlin shake-up.
1988 Sep, In San Francisco Dolores Huerta, co-founder of the United Farm Workers, suffered five fractured ribs and a ruptured spleen from tactical squad officer Francis Achim during a poitical demonstration. Material in Achim’s personnel file was removed just after the incident. In 1989 Deputy Chief John J. Jordan was charged with improperly modifying material in the file.
(SSFC, 8/31/14, p.42)
1988 Sep, Typhoons in Bangladesh caused severe flooding hundreds of thousands died in the country's lowlands.
(HFA, '96, p.71)
1988 Sep, In Burma over 10,000 students led by Htun Aung Gyaw took to the jungles to organize an armed resistance against the military regime. Gyaw was arrested by Thai authorities in 1992 and took refugee status in the US. Military rulers killed thousands of pro-democracy activists during the suppression of demonstrations. Hundreds of pro-democracy supporters were killed in Rangoon. A film was made called Beyond Rangoon that depicts the terror and bloodshed of the period.
(SFC, 5/22/96, p.C-1)(SFC, 5/25/96, p.A12)(SFC, 9/3/96, p.A7)(SFEC, 8/23/98, Par p.10)
1988 Sep, In Kenya Julie Ward was killed in the Maasai Mara National Reserve. In 1998 game warden Simon ole Makallah was arrested for the murder.
(SFC, 9/16/98, p.C2)
1988 Oct 1, In a continuing shake-up of the Soviet leadership, Mikhail Gorbachev was confirmed as president, succeeding Andrei A. Gromyko.
1988 Oct 2, The Summer Olympic Games concluded in Seoul, South Korea. The USSR won 55 gold medals, E. Germany won 37, and the US won 36.
(SFC, 7/14/96, Par p.4)(HN, 10/2/98)
1988 Oct 2, An Olympic scandal involved American boxer Roy Jones, who was robbed of a gold medal at the Olympic Games in Seoul, when he lost a split decision to South Korea's Park Si-Hun despite outpunching his opponent 86-32. Three judges who voted for the Korean were later suspended.
1988 Oct 3, Discovery completed a four-day mission, the first American shuttle flight since the Challenger disaster.
1988 Oct 3, Generoso Pope (b.1927), owner of the National Enquirer, died. His wife, Lois Pope, began a career of philanthropy. In 2008 Jack Titek authored “The Godfather of Tabloid: Generoso Pope Jr. and the National Enquirer."
(SFEC, 7/30/00, Par p.10)(WSJ, 8/12/08, p.A19)
1988 Oct 3, Franz Josef Strauss (b.1915), German defense minister (1956-62), died at 73.
1988 Oct 3, Lebanese kidnappers released Indian educator Mithileshwar Singh, who'd been held captive with three Americans for more than 20 months.
1988 Oct 4, Indian professor Mithileshwar Singh, freed the day before by his Lebanese kidnappers, said his captors had treated him well during his 20 months of imprisonment, but acknowledged "there is no substitute for freedom."
1988 Oct 5, Republican Dan Quayle and Democrat Lloyd Bentsen clashed in the only vice-presidential debate of the 1988 campaign. In a memorable moment, Bentsen lambasted Quayle, who had suggested a parallel between himself and John F. Kennedy, by telling him, "Senator, you're no Jack Kennedy."
1988 Oct 5, Grandma Prisbrey, born as Thresie (Tressa) Luella Schaefer (1896), died in California. During her life she constructed her bottle village in Simi Valley including 3 bottle structures to house her collection of 17,000 pencils. In 1981 the site was named a California State Historical Landmark and in 1996 was added to the National Register of Historic Places.
(WSJ, 10/21/08, p.D9)(www.agilitynut.com/h/prisbrey.html)
1988 Oct 5, Brazil accepted a constitution that obliged the government to make transfers to the 26 states and protect the jobs of public workers. It included a basic pension for men over 65 and women over 60, whether or not they pay into the system. This created a difficult environment for the control of spending. The new constitution also annulled the right of husbands to prohibit their wives from accepting employment. The new constitution also recognized Indian rights to reclaim their original lands and to preserve their way of life. Almost 600 reserves were established, encompassing 12.5% of Brazil’s territory, but many only existed on paper. The constitution also declared health care to be the right of the citizen and its provision to be the duty of the state. It also said Brazil will not develop, deploy or make use of nuclear weapons.
(SFC, 9/25/96, p.A1)(Econ, 9/4/04, p.37)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.36)(SSFC, 6/10/07, p.A15)(Econ, 7/30/11, p.33)(Econ, 3/10/12, p.26)(Econ, 2/25/17, p.27)
1988 Oct 5, Brazil’s new constitution set up a hyper-proportional system to ensure that all voices in the country would be heard.
(Econ, 4/1/17, p.30)
1988 Oct 5, The Chilean population agreed at referendum their opposition to the Pinochet regime.
1988 Oct 5, Israel banned Meir Kahane's Kach Party on grounds of racism.
1988 Oct 6, Gen. Augusto Pinochet, the president of Chile, conceded defeat in a referendum held the day before to determine whether he should receive a new eight-year term of office. He was forced to call for an open election but stayed president until his term ran out in 1990.
(TMC, 1994, p.1988)(AP, 10/6/98)(SFC, 3/25/99, p.A3)
1988 Oct 7, The US Labor Department reported the nation's unemployment rate for September 1988 fell back to July's level of 5.4 percent, after going up to 5.6 percent in August.
1988 Oct 8, Pope John Paul II journeyed to eastern France, where he addressed the Council of Europe and the European Court of Human Rights.
1988 Oct 9, Felix Wankel (b.1902), developer of Wankel rotary engine, died in Germany.
1988 Oct 9, Yugoslav President Raif Dizdarevic warned citizens in a national radio and television address that continued nationalist and economic unrest could lead to a state of emergency.
1988 Oct 10, Vice President Bush and Democrat Michael Dukakis prepared for their second debate of the 1988 campaign, scheduled to take place in three days.
1988 Oct 11, Violence began to subside in Algeria, where mass rioting by youths had broken out a week earlier, prompting the government to declare a state of siege.
1988 Oct 11, China agreed to the opening of an Israeli Scientific Exchange office in Beijing.
1988 Oct 12, US federal prosecutors announced that Sundstrand Corp. had agreed to plead guilty to fraud charges and pay a $115 million settlement for overbilling the Pentagon for airplane parts over five years.
1988 Oct 13, Egyptian novelist Naguib Mahfouz was named recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature.
1988 Oct 13, Vice President George Bush and Democrat Michael Dukakis met in their second presidential debate of the 1988 campaign.
1988 Oct 13, Absa Claude Diallo, Chairman of the Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People, addressed a letter to the UN Sec.-Gen. concerning profound concern at the “continued grave situation in the occupied Palestinian territories and the intensification of the policy of repression pursued by Israel against the Palestinian people."
1988 Oct 13, In Italy Cardinal Archbishop Anastasio Alberto Ballestrero was forced to announce that the Shroud of Turin did not contain the image of Christ. Scientists at 3 leading universities carbon-dated samples to some time between 1260-1390. In 1998 it was reported that the dating work was not definitive. Lab tests showed Shroud of Turin was not Christ’s burial cloth. The Shroud of Turin Research Project (Sturp) performed radiocarbon dating on fibers of the shroud and found that the linen dated to between 1260 and 1390 AD. Ian Wilson wrote the 1978 book "The Shroud of Turin" and in 1998 "The Blood and the Shroud: New Evidence That the Most Sacred Relic Is Real."
(WSJ, 4/10/98, p.W6)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.A24)(http://tinyurl.com/zuanz)
1988 Oct 14, The US government reported that wholesale prices had risen a moderate 0.4% in September.
1988 Oct 15, The Los Angeles Dodgers defeated the Oakland A's, 5-4, in the World Series opener that featured a dramatic game-winning home run hit by Kirk Gibson.
1988 Oct 15, Shapurji Sorabji (b.1892), British composer (Leon Dudley Sorabji), died. His work included "Opus clavicembalisticum" (1930), an elaboration of Ferrucio Busoni’s 1921 "Fantasia conatrappuntistica," itself a metamorphosis and completion of Bach’s "The Art of Fugue."
(WSJ, 12/12/00, p.A24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaikhosru_Shapurji_Sorabji)
1988 Oct 16, The Los Angeles Dodgers shut out the Oakland A's, 6-0, in game two of the World Series.
1988 Oct 16, Rescue workers near Point Barrow, Alaska, continued their efforts to save three California gray whales trapped in Arctic Ocean ice [see Oct 26].
1988 Oct 17, Philip Morris Companies Inc. launched an $11.5 billion takeover bid for Kraft Inc.
1988 Oct 17, Israel's supreme court upheld a ban on Meyer Kahane's Kach Party as racist.
1988 Oct 18, The TV sitcom "Roseanne" began a 9 year showing.
(SFC, 5/20/97, p.B3)
1988 Oct 18, Maurice Allais of France won the Nobel Prize in economics for contributions to the theory of markets and the efficient use of resources.
(SFC, 10/15/98, p.A2)(AP, 10/18/98)(AP, 10/11/09)
1988 Oct 18, The Oakland A's defeated the Los Angeles Dodgers 2-1 in game three of the World Series.
1988 Oct 18, South Korean President Roh Tae-woo, in an address to the U.N. General Assembly, called for a summit with North Korea's president to sign a non-aggression pact.
1988 Oct 19, The Los Angeles Dodgers defeated the Oakland A's 4-3 in game four of the World Series.
1988 Oct 19, Britain banned broadcast interviews with IRA members. Douglas Hurd introduced a notice under clause 13(4) of the BBC License and Agreement and section 29(3) of the Broadcasting Act 1981 prohibiting the broadcast of direct statements by representatives or supporters of eleven Irish political and military organizations.
1988 Oct 19, Eight Israeli soldiers were killed in a suicide car bomb attack in south Lebanon.
1988 Oct 19, Three West Germans were named winners of the Nobel Prize in chemistry; three Americans received the Nobel Prize in physics: Melvin Schwartz (1933-2006), Leon Lederman and Jack Steinberger won for their research into the innermost structure and dynamics of matter. They won for discovering the subatomic particle called the muon neutrino. In 2015 Lederman sold his Nobel Prize at auction for $765,002.
(AP, 10/19/98)(SFC, 8/29/06, p.B5)(SFC, 5/30/15, p.A5)
1988 Oct 20, The Los Angeles Dodgers won the World Series, defeating the Oakland A's in game five by a score of 5-2.
1988 Oct 20, A man armed with explosives blew himself up in 125 St. subway station in NYC.
1988 Oct 20, Britain ended a suspect’s right to remain silent in crackdown on IRA.
1988 Oct 21, A federal grand jury in New York indicted former Philippine President Ferdinand E. Marcos and his wife, Imelda, on charges of fraud and racketeering. Marcos died before he could be brought to trial; his widow, Imelda, was acquitted in 1990.
1988 Oct 22, The 100th Congress adjourned in an early morning session that produced sweeping legislation to combat drug abuse in America.
1988 Oct 22, Supreme Ct. Justice Sandra Day O'Connor OK after breast cancer surgery.
1988 Oct 22, Hurricane Joan hit Nicaragua and killed 148 people. Hurricane Joan caused 216 deaths in the Caribbean or Central America. The storm hit Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, and Venezuela.
(WP, 11/8/88, p.A21)
1988 Oct 24, The crew of the USS Vincennes received an emotional homecoming in San Diego, nearly four months after the cruiser downed an Iranian jetliner in the Persian Gulf, killing all 290 people aboard.
1988 Oct 25, ABC News reported on potbellied pygmy porkers' popularity as pets.
1988 Oct 25, First lady Nancy Reagan, addressing a U.N. committee, said the United States was responsible for its own drug problem, and charged that every American drug user was "an accomplice to every criminal act" committed by drug barons.
1988 Oct 26, A French pharmaceutical company, Roussel Uclaf, announced it would halt worldwide distribution of RU-486, a pill to induce abortions, because of "an outcry of opinion at home and abroad." The French government ordered the company to reverse itself two days later.
1988 Oct 26, US-Soviet effort freed 2 gray whales from frozen Arctic near Barrow, Alaska [see Oct 16].
1988 Oct 27, The government of the Soviet Union unveiled an $804 billion budget containing a deficit of $58 billion that officials blamed on past mistakes.
1988 Oct 28, A French pharmaceutical company that manufactured the abortion pill RU-486 announced it would resume distribution on command of the French government.
1988 Oct 29, The maiden voyage of the Soviet Union's space shuttle was delayed because of problems with ground equipment.
1988 Oct 30, Responding to Republican attempts to pin the term liberal on him, Democrat Michael Dukakis declared on the campaign trail, "Yes, I am a liberal, in the tradition of Franklin Roosevelt, Harry Truman and John Kennedy."
1988 Oct 31, John Houseman (86), actor (Paper Chase), died.
1988 Oct 31, In Lebanon the kidnappers of American hostage Terry Anderson released a videotape in which The Associated Press correspondent accused the Reagan administration of blocking his release.
1988 Oct, Sir James W. Black of Britain won the Nobel Prize in medicine for research that led to beta-blocker drugs for heart disease and drugs for peptic ulcers. Gertrude Elion (d.1999) and George H. Hitchings (d.1998 at 92) of the US were awarded for research leading to drugs for AIDS, herpes, leukemia and malaria. Elion and Hitchings were later considered as the founders of the field of chemotherapeutics. They were among the first to design drugs based on a biochemical understanding of the disease process.
(SFEC, 10/8/96, A9)(SFC, 3/3/98, p.D8)(SFC, 2/23/99, p.A22)
1988 Nov 1, Staten Island ferry got its 1st pay phones.
1988 Nov 1, Israeli voters went to the polls in parliamentary elections that resulted in a narrow victory for the right-wing Likud bloc, requiring the creation of a coalition government.
1988 Nov 2, A computer worm, named Morris, unleashed by a Cornell University graduate student began replicating, clogging thousands of computers around the country, but causing no real damage. The virus infected an estimated 6,000 university and military computers over the Internet.
(AP, 11/2/98)(SFC, 9/3/07, p.C3)
1988 Nov 3, Talk-show host Geraldo Rivera's nose was broken as Roy Innis brawled with skinheads at TV taping.
1988 Nov 3, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir, whose Likud bloc won a narrow victory in parliamentary elections, began meeting with representatives of religious and rightist parties, seeking support for a coalition government.
1988 Nov 3, The Soviet Union agreed to allow the teaching of Hebrew.
1988 Nov 4, In a ceremony at O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, President Reagan signed a measure providing for U.S. participation in an anti-genocide treaty signed by President Truman in 1948.
1988 Nov 5, With the end of the 1988 campaign in sight, Michael Dukakis vowed to work for those living on "the family budget, not the family fortune" while George Bush pledged not to be "outhustled by the liberal governor from Massachusetts."
1988 Nov 6, Andrei D. Sakharov, the father of the Soviet dissident movement, arrived in the United States for a two-week trip, less than two years after he was freed from internal exile in the Soviet Union.
1988 Nov 7, On the eve of Election Day, Vice President George Bush confidently said the nation was "coming in behind my candidacy" while Democrat Michael Dukakis vowed to pull off a stunning "November surprise."
1988 Nov 8, The US held elections and Republican VP George Bush defeated Massachusetts Gov. Michael Dukakis. Bush was elected the 41st president with 54% of the popular vote. He and Dan Quail were elected over Dukakis and Bentson. There have been 14 American vice presidents who have gone on to serve as president. John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Martin Van Buren, John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, Andrew Johnson, Chester A. Arthur, Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, Harry S. Truman, Richard M. Nixon, Lyndon Johnson, Gerald Ford, George Bush.
(WSJ, 8/5/96, p.A10)(AP, 11/8/98)(HN, 11/6/98)(HNQ, 2/20/00)
1988 Nov 8, US televangelist Pat Robertson failed in his campaign for president.
(SFC, 6/16/96, BR p.6)(Econ, 4/8/17, p.74)
1988 Nov 8, California voters approved Prop. 98 which required that at least 40% of the state budget be spent on public schools.
(SFC, 12/27/99, p.A10)
1988 Nov 8, In California 55% of voters approved Prop. 89 allowing the governor to veto state parole board decisions releasing inmates with sentences of up to life in prison.
(SFC, 10/2/14, p.D2)
1988 Nov 8, Evan Bayh, Indiana secretary of state, was elected as state governor.
(Econ, 2/20/10, p.28)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evan_Bayh)
1988 Nov 9, John N. Mitchell (b.1913), former Attorney General under Pres. Nixon, died in Washington. He was a major figure in the Watergate scandal and served 19 months at a federal prison in Alabama (1977-1979) for his role in the scandal. In 2008 James Rosen authored “The Strong Man: John Mitchell and the Secrets of Watergate."
(AP, 1/19/98)(AP, 11/9/02)(WSJ, 5/24/08, p.W8)
1988 Nov 10, The Department of Energy announced that Texas would be the home of a $4.4 billion atom-smashing super collider. However, support for the project declined as cost estimates soared, and Congress finally voted in October 1993 to kill it.
1988 Nov 11, Oldest known insect fossils (390 million yrs) was reported in Science.
1988 Nov 11, Police in Sacramento, Calif., found the first of seven bodies buried on the grounds of a boardinghouse. Landlady Dorothea Puente (d.2011 at 82) later charged in the deaths of 9 people; she was convicted of 3 murders and sentenced to life in prison in 1993.
(AP, 11/11/98)(SSFC, 1/13/02, p.A21)(SFC, 3/28/11, p.A4)
1988 Nov 12, The Palestine National Council, the legislative body of the PLO, opened a four-day meeting in Algiers, during which delegates proclaimed an independent Palestinian state.
1988 Nov 13, Former Czechoslovakia leader Alexander Dubcek received an honorary degree in Italy, the first time he was allowed outside his country in 18 years.
1988 Nov 13, Antal Dorati (82), Hungarian-US conductor and composer, died.
1988 Nov 14, The TV series “Murphy Brown" featured Candice Bergen working as an investigative journalist and producer of a TV news magazine. The show continued to 1998.
(LSA, Spring, 2009, p.44)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murphy_Brown)
1988 Nov 14, Israeli President Chaim Herzog formally asked Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir to form a new government.
1988 Nov 15, The Palestine National Council, the legislative body of the PLO, proclaimed the establishment of an independent Palestinian state at the close of a four-day conference in Algiers.
1988 Nov 15, In South Africa 7 blacks were killed and another 15 wounded in Strijdom Square in Pretoria. Barend Strydom, known as the White Wolf, was later sentenced to death for the killings. He was released in 1992 in a prisoner exchange during talks between the apartheid government and Mandela's African National Congress.
1988 Nov 15, The Soviet Union launched its first space shuttle, Buran, on an unmanned, 3 1/2 hour flight. It was designed by Gleb Lozino-Lozinsky (d.2001 at 97). The Buran orbited Earth twice, landed, and never flew again. Russia built about a dozen shuttles, mostly test models, and later scrapped the program.
(AP, 11/15/98)(SFC, 12/5/01, p.A23)(WSJ, 4/11/05, p.A18)
1988 Nov 16, Voters in Pakistan cast ballots in their first open election in 11 years, resulting in victory for populist candidate Benazir Bhutto.
1988 Nov 17, President-elect Bush announced his choice of New Hampshire Gov. John Sununu to be White House chief of staff. Sununu had earlier said "In Iowa they grow corn, in New Hampshire, we grow presidents."
(AP, 11/17/98)(SSFC, 1/25/04, p.D1)
1988 Nov 17, Hollywood gossip columnist Sheilah Graham died in West Palm Beach, Fla., at age 84.
1988 Nov 18, President Reagan signed legislation creating a Cabinet-level drug czar and providing the death penalty for drug traffickers who kill.
1988 Nov 18, Congress enacted the Westfall Act to supersede the Supreme Court's decision in Westfall v. Erwin. It amended the Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) of 1946 to require that the United States be substituted as the defendant in any tort suit brought against a government employee acting within the scope of her employment.
1988 Nov 19, Michaela Joy Garecht (9) was kidnapped outside a market in Hayward, Ca., and has not been seen since.
1988 Nov 19, Shipping heiress Christina Onassis (37) died in Buenos Aires of pulmonary edema. Her 4th marriage to Thierry Roussel had recently broken up.
(SFEC,11/16/97, Par p.2)(AP, 11/19/98)
1988 Nov 19, Benazir Bhutto was elected Prime Minister of Pakistan.
(SFC, 1/30/97, p.A9)
1988 Nov 20, Egypt and China announced they were recognizing the Palestinian state proclaimed by the Palestine National Council.
1988 Nov 21, President-elect George Bush announced he was retaining Dick Thornburgh as attorney general and Lauro Cavazos as education secretary, and appointing Richard Darman budget director.
1988 Nov 21, Canada's Progressive Conservative Party, led by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, won the country's general election.
1988 Nov 22, Americans honored President Kennedy on the 25th anniversary of his assassination, with 2,500 people turning out in Dallas, and visitors stopping by his gravesite at Arlington National Cemetery.
1988 Nov 22, Louis Barragan (b.1902), considered the most important Mexican architect of the 20th century, died in Mexico City. A 1996 book: "Barragan: The Complete Works" focuses on 119 works and projects.
(SFEM, 9/22/96, p.36)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luis_Barrag%C3%A1n)(WSJ, 9/1/07, p.P12)
1988 Nov 23, President-elect Bush announced his choice of Brent Scowcroft to be his national security adviser.
1988 Nov 23, President Reagan announced he was pocket-vetoing a bill designed to further restrict lobbying by former federal employees, saying it was "excessive and discriminatory."
1988 Nov 24, A state of emergency was declared in the cities of Kirovabad and Nakhichevan in Azerbaijan.
(WSJ, 8/7/96, p.A15)
1988 Nov 24, South Africa's justice minister announced that Nelson Mandela would not be returned to prison upon his recovery from tuberculosis, but would instead remain in custody in another location.
1988 Nov 25, An earthquake centered in eastern Canada and measuring 5.7 on the Richter scale was felt widely across Canada and in the northeastern United States.
1988 Nov 26, The United States denied an entry visa to PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat, who was seeking permission to travel to New York to address the U.N. General Assembly.
1988 Nov 26, In Iran Kazem Sami, leader of a liberal Islamic movement, was murdered.
(SFC, 12/10/98, p.C2)
1988 Nov 27, The United States was hit by a flood of worldwide criticism for its refusal a day earlier to allow PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat to address the United Nations.
1988 Nov 27, Actor John Carradine, known for his roles in horror films, died in Milan, Italy, at age 82.
1988 Nov 28, Picasso's "Acrobat & Harlequin" sold for $37.6 million at auction in England.
1988 Nov 28, President-elect Bush announced that Marlin Fitzwater, President Reagan's chief spokesman, was staying on for his administration.
1988 Nov 28, Major U.S. banks boosted their prime lending rates half a percentage point to 10.5 percent.
1988 Nov 29, US Senate Democrats elected George Mitchell of Maine to be majority leader, the post vacated by Robert Byrd of West Virginia.
1988 Nov 29, A divided US Supreme Court ruled that the rights of criminal defendants are not violated when police unintentionally fail to preserve potentially vital evidence.
1988 Nov 30, San Francisco Mayor Art Agnos, on the eve of World AIDS Day, asked city residents to light candles in their windows to recognize those who were sick or had already succumbed to the disease.
(SFC, 12/1/14, p.C1)
1988 Nov 30, The UN General Assembly (151-2) adopted resolution 43/28 in which it has been informed of the decision of the Host Country, the US, to deny the PLO's Arafat a visa.
1988 Nov 30, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. (KKR) was declared winner of the corporate free-for-all to take over RJR Nabisco Inc. with a bid of $24.53 billion. The 1991 book "Barbarians at the Gate," by Bryan Burrough and John Helyar, described the takeover.
(AP, 11/30/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(WSJ, 8/10/01, p.A1)
1988 Nov 30, Margaret Mee, artist and naturalist, died in a car crash in England. She had recently completed her painting of the night-bloomer Selenicereus witii in the Amazon jungle. In 1999 an exhibit of her 30 years of Brazilian jungle artwork was put on display at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History.
(SFC, 5/29/99, p.A7)(http://ravenel.si.edu/botany/botart/mee.htm)
1988 Dec 1, The first World Aids Day was held. Dr. Jonathan Mann, Director of the Global Program on AIDS (later known as UNAIDS) had approved a concept put forward by James W. Bunn and Thomas Netter in 1987, and agreed with the recommendation that the first observance of World AIDS Day should be December 1, 1988.
1988 Dec 1, At least 1300 were killed after a cyclone hit Bangladesh. Half a million were left homeless.
1988 Dec 1, J. Vernon McGee, founder of "Thru the Bible Radio Network," died.
(WSJ, 12/19/02, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._Vernon_McGee)
1988 Dec 1, Carlos Salinas de Gortari was sworn in as president of Mexico. He succeeded Pres. Miguel de la Madrid. One of his first acts was to turn Agualeguas, the lost family patrimony, into his official retreat.
(WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-6)(SFC, 9/2/97, p.A7)(AP, 12/1/98)
1988 Dec 1, Benazir Bhutto was named 1st female PM of a Moslem country, Pakistan.
1988 Dec 1, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev won nearly unanimous approval for a more dynamic political structure from the Supreme Soviet, which voted itself out of existence in favor of a new Congress of People's Deputies.
1988 Dec 2, The film "Naked Gun," a movie based on TV's "Police Squad," was released.
1988 Dec 2, The space shuttle Atlantis was launched on a secret four-day mission.
1988 Dec 2, Benazir Bhutto was sworn in as prime minister of Pakistan.
1988 Dec 2, The 5 gunmen, who hijacked Soviet Aeroflot jet, surrendered in Israel.
1988 Dec 3, Barry Sanders of Oklahoma State University won the Heisman Trophy.
1988 Dec 3, In South Africa 11 black funeral mourners were slain in Natal Province in an attack blamed on security forces. The Trust Feed massacre was masterminded by policeman Brian Mitchell. He was later convicted of 11 murders in the botched assassination attempt and served less than five years of a 30-year sentence. He was freed from prison in 1996 by the Reconciliation Commission.
(SFC, 12/11/96, p.C3)(www.doj.gov.za/trc/media/1996/9607/s960725k.htm)(AP, 12/3/98)
1988 Dec 4, John Maher, ex-con and co-founder of Delancey Street in San Francisco, died in New York. Grover Sales (d.2004) authored a biography of John Maher.
(SFC, 2/25/04, p.A19)(www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-3917524.html)
1988 Dec 4, The government of Argentina announced that hundreds of heavily armed soldiers had ended a four-day military revolt.
1988 Dec 4, In Venezuela, former President Carlos Andres Perez was declared the winner of the country's presidential election.
1988 Dec 5, A federal grand jury in North Carolina indicted PTL founder Jim Bakker and former aide Richard Dortch on fraud and conspiracy charges. Bakker was convicted of all counts; Dortch pleaded guilty to four counts and cooperated with prosecutors in exchange for a lighter sentence.
1988 Dec 5, The US Space Shuttle Atlantis continued its classified mission.
1988 Dec 6, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev arrived for his second U.S. visit to address the United Nations and meet with President Reagan and President-elect Bush.
1988 Dec 6, The space shuttle Atlantis landed in California.
1988 Dec 6, Rock-and-roll pioneer Roy Orbison died near Nashville, Tenn., at age 52.
1988 Dec 6, Arafat met prominent American Jews in Stockholm, Sweden.
1988 Dec 7, A magnitude 6.9-8.0 earthquake devastated Spitak in northern Armenia; an estimated 25,000-55,000 people died with some $14 billion in losses.
(AP, 12/7/97)(AP, 6/22/02)(www.who.int/archives/inf-pr-1997/en/pr97-08.html)
1988 Dec 8, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev cut short his U.S. visit in order to return home following a killer earthquake in Armenia.
1988 Dec 9, In the wake of the Armenian earthquake that claimed tens of thousands of lives, countries around the world began sending emergency supplies and offering pledges of relief funds.
1988 Dec 10, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev visited the republic of Armenia, the scene of a devastating earthquake that had killed an estimated 25,000 people.
1988 Dec 11, SES Astra SA, a subsidiary of SES Global, launched a communications satellite, made by GE Astrospace. Sky Television, later BSkyB (1990), became its 1st customer when it bought 4 transponders in 1989.
1988 Dec 11, Sixty-two people were killed when tons of illegal fireworks exploded in a Mexico City marketplace.
1988 Dec 11, A Soviet military transport plane crashed, killing nearly 80 people involved in Armenian earthquake relief efforts.
1988 Dec 12, In the Clapham rail disaster 35 people were killed in a triple train collision during morning rush-hour in south London.
(AP, 12/12/98)(Econ, 2/14/04, p.51)
1988 Dec 13, PLO chairman Yasser Arafat addressed the U.N. General Assembly in Geneva, where it had reconvened after the United States refused to grant Arafat a visa to visit New York. Arafat accepted UN Resolutions 242 and 338, which recognized Israel's right to exist.
(AP, 12/13/98)(SSFC, 6/3/07, p.E6)(www.mideastweb.org/arafat1988.htm)
1988 Dec 14, In a dramatic policy shift, President Reagan authorized the United States to enter into a "substantive dialogue" with the Palestine Liberation Organization, after chairman Yasser Arafat said he was renouncing "all forms of terrorism."
1988 Dec 14, Sixty more survivors were pulled from rubble of earthquake that rocked Armenia.
1988 Dec 15, Yasser Arafat in exile declared Palestinian independence. It was considered a symbolic act and no state boundaries were delineated.
(SFC,11/15/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 11/15/00, p.A1)
1988 Dec 15, U.S. Ambassador Robert H. Pelletreau Jr. telephoned the PLO's headquarters in Tunisia, one day after President Reagan authorized direct talks.
1988 Dec 16, President-elect Bush chose former Texas Sen. John Tower to be his secretary of defense, a nomination that went down to defeat in the U.S. Senate.
1988 Dec 16, Political cult leader Lyndon LaRouche was convicted of tax and mail fraud.
1988 Dec 16, Sylvester James (b.1947), disco superstar, died in San Francisco of AIDS-related causes.
(SFC, 10/10/98, p.E1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sylvester_%28singer%29)
1988 Dec 17, In his first public statement since the US decided to open direct talks with the PLO, Israeli PM Yitzhak Shamir expressed shock, calling the US decision a "painful" blow.
1988 Dec 18, PLO chairman Yasser Arafat met in Cairo with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak to discuss how to continue the momentum gained by the first U.S.- PLO dialogue.
1988 Dec 19, President-elect Bush nominated New York Congressman Jack Kemp to be his secretary of Housing and Urban Development.
1988 Dec 19, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir agreed to a Likud-Labor coalition to govern the Jewish state.
1988 Dec 19, Polisario Front fighters opened fire on two DC-7s chartered by USAID to spray for locusts over Morocco. One crashed, killing all five crew onboard.
1988 Dec 20, The International Committee of the Red Cross suspended its operations in Lebanon after receiving death threats.
1988 Dec 21, Drexel Burnham Lambert Inc. pleaded guilty to SEC charges of security felonies and paid a $650 million fine.
1988 Dec 21, Bob Steele (60), [Robert Bradbury], died after short illness.
1988 Dec 21, Pan Am Flight 103 was downed over Lockerbie, Scotland by a terrorist bomb. 270 people were killed aboard the Boeing 747. Libya was accused of responsibility for the bombing, which killed 259 people onboard and 11 on the ground. Two Libyan operatives, Abdel Basset al-Megrahi and A-Amin Khalifa Fahimah, were indicted in 1991 and thought to be in hiding in Libya. They were sent to the Netherlands for trial in 1999 and implicated Mohammed Abu Talb, a Palestinian terrorist jailed in Sweden. In 2000 Ahmad Behbahani (32) told a 60 Minutes journalist from a refugee camp in Turkey that he proposed the Pan Am operation and coordinated the 1996 bombing of the Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabia. He also claimed that Iran was behind the 1994 bombing in Argentina that killed 86 people. Behbahani was later called a fraud by the CIA and FBI. In 2001 a Scottish court convicted Abdel Basset Ali al-Megrahi, a Libyan intelligence officer, of murder in the 1998 bombing of Pan am Flight 103. A 2nd Libyan, Lamen Khalifa Fhimah, was acquitted. The conviction was upheld in 2002. In 2003 Libya set up a $2.7 billion fund for families of 270 people killed.
(WSJ, 12/18/95, p.A-9)(SFC, 5/11/96, p.A-8)(SFC, 6/7/97, p.A4)(AP, 12/21/97)(WSJ, 4/6/99, p.A1)(SFC, 11/25/99, p.A14)(SFC, 6/5/00, p.A9)(SFC, 6/6/00, p.A10)(SFEC, 6/11/00, p.A20)(SFC, 1/31/01, p.A11)(SFC, 3/15/02, p.A9)(AP, 8/15/03)
1988 Dec 22, President-elect Bush appointed Dr. Louis W. Sullivan secretary of health and human services, Samuel K. Skinner transportation secretary and Manuel Lujan Jr. interior secretary.
1988 Dec 22, Chico Mendes, a rubber tapper and political and environmental activist, was murdered in Acre state by a death squad allegedly directed by Hildebrando Pascoal.
(WSJ, 3/16/99, p.A1)(SFC, 12/22/08, p.A17)
1988 Dec 23, Pope John Paul II met with Yasser Arafat at the Vatican. The pontiff told the PLO leader he believed Palestinians and Jews had "an identical fundamental right" to their own countries.
1988 Dec 24, President-elect Bush nominated Elizabeth H. Dole, onetime transportation secretary, to be his secretary of labor.
1988 Dec 25, Christmas services were held in Lockerbie, Scotland, where residents mourned the loss of 270 lives in the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 with relatives of the victims.
1988 Dec 26, Another body from the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 was found, bringing the confirmed death toll to 240.
1988 Dec 26, An anti African student rebellion took place in China.
1988 Dec 27, Bulgaria stopped jamming Radio Free Europe after more than 3 decades.
1988 Dec 27, Hundreds of residents of Lockerbie, Scotland, paid silent tribute to five of the Americans killed in the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103, as coffins containing victims' remains began the journey home.
1988 Dec 28, British authorities investigating the explosion that destroyed Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, concluded that a bomb caused the blast aboard the jumbo jet.
1988 Dec 29, The Federal Aviation Administration, responding to the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103, announced tightened security measures for U.S. air carriers at 103 airports in the Middle East and Western Europe.
1988 Dec 30, President Reagan and President-elect Bush were subpoenaed to testify as defense witnesses in the pending Iran-Contra trial of Oliver North. The subpoenas were subsequently quashed.
1988 Dec 30, Isamu Noguchi (b.1904), Japanese-American sculptor, died. Noguchi designed sets for choreographer Martha Graham for 40 years. “We are a landscape of all we have seen." In 1997 Hiro Narita made a film of the artist for PBS: "Isamu Noguchi: Stones and Paper."
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isamu_Noguchi)(http://tinyurl.com/l5yw4ov)(WSJ, 1/4/05, p.D8)
1988 Dec 31, President Reagan and Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev exchanged New Year's messages in which both leaders expressed optimism about future superpower relations.
1988 Dec, Thieves stole three paintings by van Gogh, with an estimated value of $72 million to $90 million, from the Kroeller-Mueller Museum in a remote section of the Netherlands. Police later recover all three paintings.
1988 Dec, Tahir Mirza Hussain (18), a British Pakistani visiting relatives near Chakwal, Pakistan, was physically and sexually assaulted by a taxi driver with a gun. A struggle followed during which the gun went off and driver Jamshad Khan was fatally injured. Hussein reported the incident to police and was arrested. In 1989 he was sentenced to death. In May, 1996, a high court acquitted him of all charges, but an Islamic court charged him with armed robbery and in August, 1998, he was again sentenced to death.
(SSFC, 5/21/06, p.A16)
1988 Artist Brett-Livingstone Strong began his work called "The Presidential Monument." Sculpting and transport cost him $650,000. He sold rights to the work to American Spirit Corp. which was backed by Michael Jackson. Jackson found temporary storage at the headquarters of the narcotics squad in Washington. American Spirit ran out of cash and put the monument up for auction where Howard Tullman purchased it in 1993 for $135,000. Tullman was still looking for a place to put it and then sell replicas to the public.
(WSJ, 6/20/96, p.1,20)
1988 Robert Rauschenberg created his collage work "Port of Entry." It was acquired by the SF MOMA in 1999.
(SFC, 5/8/99, p.E1)
1988 Katie McCamant and husband Chuck Durrett published “Cohousing: A Contemporary Approach to Housing Ourselves."
(SFCM, 5/18/08, p.4)
1988 Alger Hiss, former US State Dept. official, authored "Recollections of a Life."
(SFC, 5/9/00, p.A25)
1988 David Henry Hwang wrote his play "M. Butterfly." He won a Tony Award for best new play.
(SFEC, 2/8/98, DB p.44)
1988 Craig Lucas wrote his play "Prelude To a Kiss."
(SFEC, 5/30/99, DB p.37)
1988 The David Mamet play "Speed-the-Plow" opened on Broadway.
1988 McGeorge Bundy (1919-1996), security advisor to John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, wrote "Danger and Survival: Choices About the Bomb in the First 50 Years."
(SFC, 9/17/96, p.A22)
1988 Martin Daly and Margot Wilson wrote their book "Homicide," an evolutionary view of homicidal human behavior.
(NH, 11/96, p.13)
1988 Martin B. Duberman wrote a biography of Paul Robeson.
(WSJ, 4/9/98, p.A21)
1988 "A Brief History of Time" by physicist Stephen Hawking was published. Hawking was later quoted on an imaginary direction of time perpendicular to the axis of real time.
(SFEC, 6/13/99, Par p.16)
1988 Dilip Hiro authored "Islamic Fundamentalism."
(FT, 12/14/02, p.V)
1988 Alan Hollinghurst authored his 1st novel, “The Swimming Pool Library." Edmund White later described it as the best book about gay life yet written by an English author.
(Econ, 4/17/04, p.82)
1988 Yuji Ichioka (d.2002 at 66), San Francisco born historian, authored "Issei," a study of 1st generation Japanese-Americans.
(SFC, 9/21/02, p.A30)
1988 "Moonwalk" by Michael Jackson was published.
(SFC, 8/28/96, E10)
1988 Paul Kennedy authored his best seller "The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers," in which he argued that a nation’s clout ultimately rests on its economic base.
(WSJ, 3/29/01, p.A12)
1988 David Ogilvy (1911-1999), the father of Madison Avenue, authored “Confessions of an Advertising Man."
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Ogilvy_%28businessman%29)(Econ, 9/13/14, SR p.3)
1988 "Dr. Zhivago" by Boris Pasternak was first published in the Soviet Union.
1988 "Life Beyond Liebfraumilch" by Stuart Pigott was published.
(WSJ, 8/20/96, p.A1)
1988 Patrick Seale (d.2014), British journalist and writer on Middle Eastern affairs authored a biography of Syrian President Hafez Assad, "Assad of Syria: The Struggle for the Middle East" (1988).
1988 Robert H. Super (1915-1996), Prof. of English at U of Mich., published "The Chronicler of Barsetshire: A Life of Anthony Trollope." Prof. Super also wrote a biography of the English poet Walter Savage Landor and edited the 11-volume complete prose works of Matthew Arnold.
(LSA, fall/96, p.37)
1988 Mo Udall, Arizona state representative, authored "Too Funny to be President."
(SFC, 12/14/98, p.A5)
1988 The Council on Economic Priorities founded by Tepper Marlin began publishing its "Shopping for a Better World." The book proposed that consumers have the power to change companies by the simple expedient of refusing to buy.
(Hem., Nov. '95, p.25)
1988 The book "Fumbling the Future" was published. It detailed the failure of Xerox Corp. to take commercial advantage of the inventions coming out of its Research Center in Palo Alto.
(Hem., Nov. '95, p.39)
1988 "Images of the Ice Age" by Paul G. Bahn and Jean Vertut was published.
(NH, 7/96, p.73)
1988 Sarah Holmes Boutelle (d.1999 at 90) published her biography "Julia Morgan, Architect." The book won a California Book Award Silver medal the following year.
(SFC, 5/29/99, p.A23)
1988 Connie Bruck authored “The Predator’s Ball," an account of how Drexel Burnham Lambert came to the pinnacle of Wall Street power in a few short years.
(WSJ, 1/20/07, p.P10)
1988 Freeman Dyson, physicist, wrote "Infinite in All Directions." His message was the "unbounded prodigality of life and the consequent unboundedness of human destiny."
(Wired, 2/98, p.132)(WSJ, 6/22/99, p.A22)
1988 Robert Fulghum authored “All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten."
(SSFC, 8/26/07, p.H1)
1988 Gerald Grant authored "The World We Created at Hamilton High."
(WSJ, 5/4/99, p.A22)
1988 "Caribou" by wildlife biologist Michio Hoshino was published.
(NH, 7/96, p.4)
1988 Emily Hahn (1905-1997) wrote: "Eve and the Apes," and "Look Who’s Talking," where she examined communications among beasts and between beasts and humans.
(SFC, 2/19/96, p.A20)
1988 F.A. Hayek, economist, wrote his final book "The Fatal Conceit."
(WSJ, 5/7/99, p.A18)
1988 Ian Hamilton wrote "J.D. Salinger: A Writing Life." Salinger sued Hamilton for using portions of unpublished correspondence.
1988 Ed Joyce (1932-2014), former president of CBS News (1983-1986), authored “Prime Times, Bad Times."
(SFC, 8/8/14, p.D5)
1988 Donald A. Norman published "The Design of Everyday Things," an assault on the design of everyday objects.
(SFEC, 3/21/99, BR p.12)
1988 Joseph D. Pistone wrote of his 6 undercover years with the mob in "Donnie Brasco: My Undercover Life in the Mafia." It was made into a film in 1997.
(SFEC, 3/2/97, DB p.48)
1988 Dirk Vellenga wrote "Elvis and the Colonel" that described the marketing of Elvis Presley by Colonel Tom Parker.
1988 Michael Blake wrote his novel "Dances With Wolves." He sold the film rights to Kevin Kostner for $25,000.
(SFEC, 10/20/96, Par, p.30)
1988 Peter Carey wrote "Oscar and Lucinda" and won the Booker Prize.
(SFEC,12/21/97, DB p.51)
1988 Jane Hamilton wrote her novel "The Book of Ruth."
(SFEC, 12/15/96, DB p.61)
1988 Albert A. Hutler (d.1998 at 89) authored "Agony of Survival," a recounting of his efforts to aid concentration camp survivors in 1945, when he served as chief of the Displaced Persons Section of the US 7th Army Military Government.
(SFC, 10/24/98, p.A22)
1988 Doris Lessing authored her novel "The Fifth Child." It was about a monster child to the age of 15. A sequel followed in 2000.
(SFEC, 8/13/00, BR p.3)
1988 David Macaulay published "The Way Things Work." In 1999 it was turned into a 3D version.
(SFC, 4/21/99, p.E1)
1988 Gerald J. Whitrow (d.2000 at 87), mathematician and philosopher, published "Time in History."
(SFC, 6/27/00, p.A23)
1988 James Michener wrote his novel "Journey."
1988 Shirley Temple Black (1928-2014) authored her best-selling autobiography "Child Star."
(SFC, 1/26/06, p.E3)(SFC, 2/12/14, p.A1)
1988 The dance show "Tango x 2" was created by Milena Plebs and Miguel Angel Zotto.
(WSJ, 11/13/96, p.A20)
1988 The PBS special "The Power of Myth" with Bill Moyers and Joseph Campbell was shown.
(SFEC, 6/1/97, p.A17)
1988 The TV series "In the Heat of the Night" started and ran to 1994.
(SFC, 12/10/96, p.D2)
1988 The TV show St. Elsewhere ended 6 seasons on NBC with a final May show titled: "The Last One."
(SFEC, 4/19/98, DB p.38)
1988 Mark-Anthony Turnage composed his opera "Greek," a violent, vulgar, jazz-heavy, skinhead version of "Oedipus Rex.’
(WSJ, 6/21/00, p.A24)
1988 The work "Crest of a Knave" by Jethro Tull won the Grammy best hard rock/metal performance category.
(SFEC, 2/21/99, DB p.38)
1988 M.C. Hammer (aka Stanley Kirk Burrell) released his first "rap music" album, "Feel My Power" on Bustin’ Records.
(SFEC, 7/13/97, DB p.34)
1988 "Touch Me I’m Sick" by Mudhoney was released and is considered to be the first grunge record.
(SFC, 7/30/97, p.E6)
1988 Bill Graham produced a worldwide tour on behalf of Amnesty Int’l. featuring Bruce Springsteen, Sting and Peter Gabriel. They toured Costa Rica, India and Zimbabwe.
1988 Suzanne Vega came to fame with her anti-child abuse anthem "Luka."
(SFEC, 4/25/99, BR p.4)
1988 The Museum of American Finance was founded in NYC and housed on Broadway. On Jan 11, 2008, it opened in new quarters at 48 Wall Street, the former headquarters of the Bank of New York.
(Econ, 1/19/08, p.93)(www.financialhistory.org/)
1988 In Oklahoma City the Crystal Bridge Tropical Conservatory, designed by I.M. Pei, was built. The 224-foot long steel and acrylic cylinder stood 7-stories.
(SFCM, 3/20/05, p.30)
1988 The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, N.M. was completed. It received its 1st shipment of nuclear waste in 1999.
(SFC, 3/26/99, p.A3)(SFC, 3/27/99, p.A2)
1988 Junipero Serra (1713-1784), Spanish Roman Catholic missionary to the Indians in California and Mexico, was beatified.
(SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A18)
1988 Winona LaDuke founded the nonprofit White Earth Land Recovery Project to reacquire reservation land for the White Earth band of Ojibwa Indians.
(SFC, 8/30/96, p.A3)
1988 Al Aho, Peter Weinberger, and Brian Kernighan designed a new programming language named AWK, and wrote : The AWK Programming Language.
(I&I, Penzias, p.132)
1988 Purdue Univ. began hosting the National Rube Goldberg Machine Contest. Reuben Lucius "Rube" Goldberg (b.1883), cartoonist, was known for drawing vastly complicated machines that performed simple tasks.
(WUD, 1994, p.607)(SFEC, 4/5/98, p.A28)
1988 The Sonoma Creek Winery was founded near Sonoma, California.
(SFC, 4/9/96, z1 p.7)
1988 The first gathering of Airstream enthusiasts was held in Huntsville, Ala., and attracted 2,741 trailers. The Airstream was born when Wally Byam (d.1962) riveted shiny aluminum to a steel frame on wheels in the 1930s.
(SFEC, 6/29/97, p.A12)
1988 Leaders in Pine County Nevada in an effort to bolster the local economy established an anything-goes car race event. Drivers could compete in 13 different speed classes from 95 mph to unlimited.
(WSJ, 5/30/96, p.A1)
1988 The Detroit Pistons basketball team opened their new Palace of Auburn Hills with 180 luxury suites.
(WSJ, 10/10/97, p.B1)
1988 The Kentucky Derby was won by Winning Colors ridden by Gary Stevens.
(WSJ, 5/5/97, p.A16)
1988 The Pulitzer Prize for drama went to Alfred Uhry for the play "Driving Miss Daisy."
(SFEC, 4/13/97, DB p.54)
1988 Neil Sheehan won a Pulitzer prize for "A Bright Shining Lie," about the war in Vietnam. In 1997 it was made into an HBO movie.
1988 Chicago Tribune reporter Ann Marie Lipinski won a Pulitzer Prize for a 10-month investigative series on corruption in the Chicago City Council.
(MT, Fall. ‘97, p.8)
1988 The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the UN Peacekeeping Operations.
(SFC, 10/12/96, p.A13)
1988 Gertrude B. Elion (1918-1999), American biochemist, won the Nobel Prize in Medicine.
1988 A Bush ad campaign accused Democratic candidate Michael Dukakis as being soft on crime and featured Willie Horton, a black man convicted of murder.
(SFC, 9/5/96, p.A1)
1988 Lamar Alexander became the president of the Univ. of Tennessee and reacquired his stake in Blackberry Farm Inn and transferred it to his wife.
(WSJ, 2/15/96, p.A-14)
1988 US federal legislation (“pay to play") made it illegal to trade campaign contributions for support of legislation. This narrowed in 2010 by the Supreme Court to apply only to bribes and kickbacks.
(SFC, 3/29/14, p.A1)
1988 The US Congress passed the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act.
(SFC, 6/26/96, p.A10)
1988 The US government filed suit to impose federal supervision of the Teamsters Union after the death of its general president, Jackie Presser, on grounds of alleged Mafia control.
(SFEC, 1/5/97, BR p.6)
1988 A US Civil Liberties Act was passed.
(SFC, 8/29/96, p.C4)
1988 The US Film Preservation Act was passed. It established the United States National Film Registry, the National Film Preservation Board's selection of films for preservation in the Library of Congress.
(SFC, 12/29/11, p.E1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Film_Registry)
1988 The US Supreme Court in the Hazelwood vs. Kuhlmeier case allowed principals to censor high-school newspapers.
(WSJ, 5/4/99, p.A22)
1988 The US government Family Support Act strengthened job training requirements and allowed states to experiment with work-for-welfare rules.
(SFEC, 1/5/97, zone 1 p.5)
1988 The US Trademark Law Revision Act was passed. As of Nov, 1989, entities would be allowed to apply for a trademark based on their intent to use it within 36 months.
(Wired, 6/97, p.94)
1988 Nov, African Aviation Ministers met in Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire, to develop a blueprint for building a strong and vibrant aviation industry that would galvanise economic and social development across the huge continent of Africa. Most African governments signed up to the Yamoussoukro Declaration, pledging to open their skies to one another. By 2016 not had done so fully.
(www.africanaviation.com/The_Yamoussoukro_Indecision.html)(Econ, 2/13/15, p.12)
1988 The US Congress granted the WW II merchant mariners veteran status.
(SFC, 5/26/01, p.A13)
1988 In southern California Hedayat Esclaminia, a government official under the Shah of Iran, was abducted, by his son Reza (26), a member of the "Billionaire Boys Club." Hedayat suffocated and died in a steamer trunk. Reza was convicted and sentenced to life. In 1998 his conviction was overturned based on unfair evidence and a new trial was scheduled.
(SFC, 2/19/98, p.A14)
1988 Voters in California passed Proposition 99 which levied a tax on cigarettes to in part fund education and research programs.
(SFEM, 7/14/96, p.32)
1988 The Chinese Hoy Sun Cemetery was established in Colma, Ca.
1988 Voters in California approved the construction of the 1,400 acre Los Vaqueros dam in Contra Costa County. The dam was scheduled to be completed in 1997 and filled with 100,000 acre feet of water by 1998.
(SFC, 9/3/96, p.A11)
1988 In San Francisco a 7-bed hospice care program began at Laguna Honda. In 1990 it expanded to 15 beds and added an AIDS ward.
(SFC, 8/26/08, p.B5)
1988 In San Francisco Chu Fung opened the Candlestick RV Park.
(SSFC, 1/3/10, p.C3)
1988 In California the Navarro River Redwoods State Park was purchased by the Save the Redwoods League, setting aside 12 miles of parklands along the Navarro River.
1988 Gregory Thomas Frazier, author and professor, founded Audiovision, a SF Bay Area company that specialized in description services for TV, film and live theater for the benefit of the blind and visually impaired.
(SFC, 7/16/96, p.A14)
1988 Lotfi Mansouri became the general director of the San Francisco Opera. He succeeded Terence A. McEwen.
(SFEC, 8/17/97, DB p.47)(SFC, 2/2/99, p.A11)
1988 Anita Monga began programming the films for San Francisco’s Castro Theater, owned by Blumenfeld Enterprises.
(SFEC, 9/5/99, p.A8)
1988 In San Francisco the open air Stonestown Shopping Center was enclosed.
(SFC, 8/17/04, p.C1)
1988 The square-rigged Balclutha was moved to San Francisco’s Hyde Street Pier.
1988 In San Francisco Terry Brisbane took over the Cornerstone Independent, a nondenominational church on Valencia St. Albert Brisbane had bought the building in 1963.
(SSFC, 4/15/01, p.A8)
1988 In San Francisco The USF Center for the Pacific Rim was founded.
(SFEC, 9/28/97, BR p.5)
1988 The San Francisco Shopping Center at 865 Market St. opened.
(SFEM, 2/2/97, p.21)
1988 In San Francisco a law was passed to allow artists to live in old industrial buildings.
(SFC, 3/30/98, p.A1)
1988 In San Francisco 78% of the voters approved a ballot measure for a new library.
(SFC, 4/14/96, EM, p.22)
1988 San Francisco Mayor Art Agnos appointed Frank Quinn (1923-1996) to the Fire Commission. Quinn pushed for integration and new equipment. Quinn was also the first president of the SF Human Rights Commission. Quinn also wrote a book about Indian culture: "Indians of California, Past and Present."
(SFC, 9/27/96, p.A24)
1988 The San Francisco Redevelopment Agency gave the SF Museum of Modern Art land for a new home on Third Street.
(SFC, 10/21/04, p.A15)
1988 San Francisco raised cable car prices to $2.00.
(SFC, 3/2/05, p.B7)
1988 San Francisco accepted an offer by Gannett Outdoor Advertising for 1,000 free bus shelters with 15 years of maintenance in exchange for the right to place advertising on the sides. Lewis Lillian (1935-2007), political figure and advertising executive, played a key roll in the deal.
(SSFC, 12/16/07, p.C7)
1988 Connie "Chip" Armstrong Jr., former firefighter, acquired Hamilton Taft & Co., a SF payroll tax firm, after he discovered that company officials had diverted payroll tax money to themselves. He filed suit, acquired the company and proceeded to embezzle $85 million. The company went bankrupt in 1991 and he was convicted in 1997.
(SFC, 2/27/97, p.A16)
1988 In San Francisco Chronicle Publ. Purchased Motor Books and later renamed it MBI.
(SFC, 8/7/99, p.A8)
1988 In San Francisco the Academy of Art College was rejected in its bid for accreditation by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC), due to the lack of full-time, permanent faculty.
(SFC, 5/22/98, p.B2)
1988 Robert Corrigan, former chancellor of the Univ. of Massachusetts, became the 12th president at SF State Univ.
(SFEC, 3/21/99, Z1 p.4)
c1988 In Chicago Norma Alcantana and Frank Dueno originated a scheme for smuggling in deaf Mexicans to sell trinkets on the streets and later to have traded trinket vendors to a New York operation led by Renato Paoletti-Lemus.
(SFC, 7/30/97, p.A4)
1988 Cesar Chavez, founder of the United Farmworkers Union, fasted for 36 days to protest the use of pesticides on crops picked by farmworkers.
(SFC, 4/15/98, p.A16)
1988 In Alaska the White Pass & Yukon railroad opened for tourists visiting the state from cruise ships and the new road to Skagway.
(SFEC, 2/8/98, p.T3)
1988 Alaskan oil production peaked.
(Econ, 8/23/14, p.23)
1988 Cliff Stoll, physicist and astronomer, detected a German spy ring roaming through the files of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and other US defense-related organizations. In 1995 he wrote "Silicon Snake Oil."
(SFC, 7/7/96, DB p.31)
1988 James Calvin Tillman (26) was arrested in Connecticut for alleged abduction and rape. He was convicted in 1989 and sentenced to 45 years in prison. In 2006 he was released from prison after tests showed that forensic evidence from the crime scene did not match his DNA.
1988 In Hawaii the 54,000 acre Molokai Ranch on Molokai was bought by Brierly Investments, a New Zealand-based, multibillion-dollar company.
(SFEC, 8/10/97, p.T7)
1988 Lousiana oilman Patrick Taylor (1937-2004) promised a class of 13-14-year-olds that he would pay their college tuition fees as long as they kept a b average in high school. The idea expanded and soon covered poor pupils across the state.
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrick_F._Taylor) (Econ, 8/13/16, p.18)
1988 In Portland, Ore., Paul Erven Jackson and his older brother Vance Roberts began kidnapping and holding prostitutes as sex slaves. Both men vanished in early 1991 after their mother bailed them from jail. Roberts surrendered in 2006 and was later sentenced to 108 years in prison. Jackson (45) was arrested in Mexico on Sep 28, 2015.
(SFC, 9/30/15, p.A7)
1988 Baldwin Piano & Organ Co. acquired the Wurlitzer Co.
(WSJ, 6/29/99, p.A1)
1988 Basin Electric Power Cooperative of Bismarck, ND, paid the US government $85 million for the Dakota Gasification Co. of Beulah, which had begun as a $1.5 billion public-private venture under the Carter administration to reduce US dependence on Middle East oil.
(SFC, 10/15/03, p.A4)
1988 Frederic W. Cook, head of his executive compensation consulting firm, came up with a new type of stock option, the reload, that put him and his firm on the map. Reloads were awards that were automatically replaced each time they were exercised.
1988 AT&T laid a telephone cable laid under the Atlantic Ocean that permitted 37,800 simultaneous phone calls, doubling the number of phone calls that could be made at one time.
1988 European Airbus jets were sold to Canada. In 1996 there were allegations of kickbacks in the deal and in 1996 Swiss Bank records were sought in a corruption probe. Prime Minister Mulroney filed suit in 1996 for being named in the scandal.
(WSJ, 6/20/96, p.A14)
1988 Privately held Amstar Corp. [Domino sugar] sold its sugar business to Tate & Lyle PLC, and became a holding company for Milwaukee Electric Tool.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)
1988 Larry Fink helped found BlackRock as a fixed income unit within Blackstone, a private equity group.
(Econ, 9/3/11, p.74)
1988 The first John Madden Football computer game was produced by Electronic Arts. EA founder Trip Hawkins had earlier gained permission to produce the game from John Madden, coach of the Oakland Raiders. EA programmer Robin Antonick wrote the initial code for the game which went on to generate over $4 billion for EA.
(SFC, 7/22/13, p.A6)
1988 Herman Cain led an executive team buyout for Godfather’s Pizza from Pillsbury for $50 million.
(SFEC, 10/13/96, Par p.5)
1988 McDonald’s introduced the "McChicken."
(DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)
1988 Senior management with GE Capital led a $3.8 billion leveraged buyout of Montgomery Ward from Mobil Corp.
(SFC, 12/29/00, p.A12)(WSJ, 12/29/00, p.A3)
1988 America’s Mellon Bank spun off its bad energy and property loans into Grant Street National Bank, financed with junk bonds and private equity. This established a precedent for what later became known as the good bank/bad bank.
(Econ, 1/24/09, p.82)
1988 Rupert Murdoch bought TV Guide, the flagship of a magazine group valued at $3 billion.
(WSJ, 5/8/98, p.W10)
1988 National Distillers and Chemical Corp. sold its liquor business to American Brands and changed its name to Quantum Chemical Corp.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)
1988 Microsoft revenues rose to $590 million with 2,793 employees.
(Wired, 12/98, p.197)
1988 Nintendo of Japan launched its Nintendo Power magazine aimed at boys 8-15 years old. It claims a subscription based circulation of 1 million.
(Hem, 4/96, p.30)
1988 The J. Peterman Co. was founded after John Peterman bought a duster raincoat in Jackson Hole, Wyo. His 13th store opened in SF in 1998 and the operation went bust in 1999 with $40 million in debt and was sold to the Paul Harris Co. for $10 mil.
(SFEC, 10/3/99, p.B1)
1988 RJR Nabisco was bought by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts for $24.5 billion.
(SFC, 3/1/97, p.B1)
1988 George Soros, billionaire financier, traded shares of French bank Societe Generale prior to a takeover. A court in 2002 alleged insider knowledge and fined him $2.2 million. Soros had declined to participate in takeover deal but bought shares that gained him $2.28 million.
(SFC, 12/21/02, p.B1)
1988 Toyota began to build cars in the US in Kentucky.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1988 TRW developed the first original-equipment keyless remote entry system.
(F, 10/7/96, p.72)
1988 Volkswagen ceased US production.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)
1988 Wal-Mart opened its 1st supercenter in Washington, Mo.
(SFC, 8/4/05, p.C1)
1988 Wells Fargo acquired Barclays Bank of California.
(SFC, 6/9/98, p.A10)
1988 Natalie Spingarn (d.2000 at 78) authored her "Cancer Survivor’s Bill of Rights" for the 75th anniversary of the American Cancer Society.
(SFC, 6/24/00, p.A23)
1988 The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) named "chronic fatigue syndrome" (CFS), to describe ongoing symptoms of overwhelming fatigue.
(SFCM, 6/5/05, p.6)
1988 Dean Kamen, inventor, bought North Dumpling Island, 3 acres off the Connecticut coast. His inventions included the 1st portable insulin pump.
(SSFC, 4/8/01, p.B3)(http://tinyurl.com/2pntdd)
1988 Michael Free of PATH, a nonprofit creator of medical technologies for developing countries, created a new syringe and needle that became disabled after a single injection. The autodestruct syringe was licensed exclusively to Becton Dickinson, which agreed to supply UNICEF and health ministries of developing nations and to pay a $50,000 patent maintenance fee.
(SFC, 10/28/98, p.A1)
1988 Dr. Eliane Gluckman became the first person to perform a cord blood transplant for a case of Franconi’s anemia.
(SFC, 9/7/96, p.A7)
1988 Eli Lilly launched Prozac (Fluoxetine), an anti-depressant. The US FDA had approved it on Dec 29, 1987.
(Econ, 5/26/12, p.81)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluoxetine)
1988 Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) was first detected in Europe. The vancomycin antibiotic was developed in 1958.
(SFEC, 9/14/97, p.C1,4)
1988 Albert Fert of France and Peter Grunberg of Germany independently discovered the phenomenon of giant magnetoresistance. It was later adopted for use in computer hard-drives. In 2007 they won the Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery.
(Econ, 10/13/07, p.94)
1988 On the 30th anniversary of the IGY, it was measured that the amount of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere had climbed to 350 ppm. The amplitude of the annual breaths increased by almost 20% from 1958-1982.
(NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.36, 249)(www.nas.edu/history/igy/)
1988 Kevin E. Trenberth pre-published a paper titled: "Origins of the 1988 North American Drought," wherein in attributed the draught to conditions of the atmosphere and hydrosphere, i.e. El Nino. The summer of ‘88 was a record for hurricanes.
(NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.99,107)
1988 Beal Mountain mine opened near Butte, Mont. Its owner promoted open-pit cyanide leaching for extracting gold from ore as modern and environmentally friendly. Pegasus Gold Corp., a Canadian company, extracted nearly 460,000 ounces of gold over a decade before closing the mine and declaring bankruptcy in 1998. It left behind a 70-acre, cyanide-contaminated leach pond with a leaky liner and tons of rubble that sends selenium-laced runoff into streams, threatening cutthroat trout and other fish. The 2009 economic stimulus included some funds for cleaning up this and other similar sites.
1988 An undersea glow along edges of new born crust was first detected by researchers Cindy Lee Van Dover and John Delaney that remained inexplicable. They recorded the dim glow from the research submarine Alvin. Theories to explain the glow were attributed to: Triboluminescence, Crystalloluminescence or Sonoluminescence.
(SFEC, 10/6/96, A2)
1988 A memo from a Camp Lejeune, NC, lawyer, Staff Judge Advocate A.P. Tokarz, to the base's assistant facilities manager said the Marine Corps had known for years that a fuel farm, built in 1941, was leaking 1,500 gallons a month and had done nothing to stop it. "It's an indefensible waste of money and a continuing potential threat to human health and the environment."
1988 The zebra mussel first appeared in the US. It is capable of laying up to 5 million eggs per year.
(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A3)
1988 13 western states of the US were subject to bubonic plague due to flea infected rodents.
(NG, 5/88, p.686)
1988 The world’s seafood supply peaked at 34 pounds a person per year. In 2001 the supply fell to 25 pounds per person per year.
(SFC, 11/30/01, p.E1)
1988 Ralph Rotty, compiler of the world’s annual industrial statistics, died. He translated the statistics into tonnage of carbon dioxide at the Institute for Energy Analysis in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. His assistant Gregg Marland took over.
(NOHY, Weiner, 3/90, p.249)
1988 Staff members of Afghanistan’s National Museum moved most of its artifacts into storage as the Soviet occupation ended. An inventory in 2004 showed that most of the stored items survived the civil war and the Taliban years.
(SFC, 11/18/04, p.A16)
1988 In the Arctic original navigational records were uncovered from Admiral Peary’s 1909 dog-sled voyage indicating that he probably never got closer than 121 miles from the North Pole.
(SFC, 9/11/08, p.B4)
1988 Adventure Network Int’l. began flying tourists to Antarctica.
1988 A national awakening occurred in Azerbaijan when conflict erupted over the Armenian enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh, included by the Soviets in the Republic of Azerbaijan. The Armenian population in Nagorno-Karabakh began fighting for independence.
(CO, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Azerbaijan)(SFC, 11/27/96, p.A13)(WSJ, 5/14/97, p.A22)
1988 The Armenian population in Nagorno-Karabakh began fighting for independence. Armenia’s conflict with Azerbaijan over the Nagorno-Karabakh region erupted.
(SFC, 11/27/96, p.A13)(WSJ, 5/14/97, p.A22)
1988 The Australian Capital Territory (ACT), a region comprising Canberra, gained self-government.
(Econ, 6/17/06, p.50)
1988 Australia pioneered the use of plastic money.
(Econ, 2/5/05, p.71)
1988 In Australia the Murray-Darling Basin Commission was established to regulate water use in the river system. In 2003 the mouth at Adelaide dried up for a 2nd time since European settlement. 4 states shared the Murray-Darling river system, which fed two-thirds of the country’s irrigated farmland.
(Econ, 7/12/03, p.38)(Econ, 4/24/10, p.41)
1988 Bangladesh’s military ruler declared Islam the state religion by amending the charter, but it barely affected the secular legal system mainly based on British common law. In 1996 the Supreme Court ruled the provision in the constitution is undemocratic. In 2011 the Cabinet decided to keep the provision of state religion considering the national reality.
1988 In Bangladesh monsoon floods left over 3,000 dead this year.
(SFC, 8/13/02, p.A15)
1988 Belgium passed a law that forbade the ritual execution of animals at home.
(WSJ, 1/4/07, p.A1)
1988 In Belarus mass graves were discovered in the Kurapaty region outside of Minsk. Initial reports said the bodies belonged to people killed in Stalin purges. Pres. Lukashenko later said the bodies belonged to Belarusian Jews killed by Nazis.
(SSFC, 9/2/01, p.A14)
1988 A census found that southern Bhutan had a lot of illegal Nepalese settlers. Protestors of the census were jailed, some expulsion orders were issued and others were harassed out.
(WSJ, 3/6/97, p.A1)(Econ, 10/25/03, p.39)
1988 Brazil granted Indians some territory and pledged to demarcate the land within five years. Hitherto Indians were considered wards of the state and denied full rights for centuries.
1988 Brazil’s National Institute for Space Research (INPE) began publishing yearly accounts of deforestation. In 2004 it created the DETER system to alert the formation of new large-scale deforested areas.
(Econ, 11/2/13, p.21)
1988 Wilys de Castro (b.1926), Brazilian artist, died in Sao Paulo.
1988 In Brazil Mira Schendel (b.1919), a Swiss-born artist and the mother of Brazil’s minimalist geometric tradition, died.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mira_Schendel)(Econ, 6/7/14, p.89)
1988 The Chin army began fighting a low-level rebellion for more autonomy for the mainly Christian Chin in Burma's northwest, where government troops have been trying to force them to convert to Buddhism.
1988 Britain set its top income tax rate at 40%.
(Econ, 11/29/08, p.13)
1988 Canada reformed its tax system flattening the rate structure and cutting top rates.
(Econ, 9/24/11, p.84)
1988 In Canada Claude Comair, a Lebanese-born, computer animation specialist, founded the DigiPen Institute of Technology in Vancouver. It taught students fundamentals of video game development and in 1996 moved to Seattle.
(WSJ, 10/13/98, p.A1)
1988 Former Central African Republic ruler Jean-Bedel Bokassa was sentenced to death for murder and embezzlement. His sentence was commuted to life imprisonment.
1988 Chile was kicked out of America’s system of preferences and cut its average tariffs from 20% to 15% in a bid to lower the cost of imports.
(Econ, 5/28/05, p.78)
1988 Ricardo Claro (1934-2008), Chilean industrialist, became head of Compania SudAmericana de Vapores (CSAV), a shipping company. He expanded the company 10-fold by 2007 raising its revenues to $4.15 billion.
(WSJ, 11/8/08, p.A6)
1988 A Chinese a television series called “River Elegy" portrayed China as a country weighed down by a long history of backwardness and inward looking conservatism.
(Econ, 10/29/16, p.37)
1988 In China the Zhong Gong meditation-exercise sect was founded. By 2000 it had attracted some 20 million followers and was ordered suppressed by the government as an "evil cult."
(SFC, 2/1/00, p.A10)
1988 Wang Jianlin formed a property company in Dalian, China, using $80,000 in borrowed money. By 2015 his firm, Dalian Wanda, was China’s biggest private property developer.
(Econ, 2/14/15, p.55)
1988 China began hosting its Peasant Olympics in the city of Quanzhou. The event continued every 4 years.
(Econ, 11/15/08, p.54)
1988 China amended its Constitution.
(SFEC, 1/31/99, p.A22)
1988 China suffered severe inflation.
(Econ, 1/9/16, p.36)
1988 Hainan, a resource-rich tropical island about the size of Sri Lanka, became a separate province. The capital is Haikou. Hainan, the home to a new strategic naval harbor, also developed a beach resort at Sanya.
(Econ, 12/13/08, p.52)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hainan)
1988 China abolished its silk monopoly.
(WSJ, 7/9/96, p.A13)
1988 Huawei, a Chinese maker of telecom equipment, was founded. By 2008 it was ranked a the world’s 4th largest maker of network equipment.
(Econ, 9/26/09, SR p.13)
1988 US intelligence detected a Chinese test of a neutron bomb. The 1999 Cox report held that the technology was believed to have been stolen from the US. In July, 1999, China announced that it had developed the design technology to make neutron bombs in 1988 and could make miniaturized nuclear weapons.
(SFC, 5/15/99, p.A3)(SFC, 7/15/99, p.A9)(WSJ, 7/16/99, p.A1)
1988 In China Cardinal Ignatius Kug was released following 32 years in prison.
(SFC, 10/29/99, p.A16)
1988 China Merchants convinced the government to allow it back into the insurance business. It was permitted to establish Ping An Insurance, at first providing coverage for trucks moving goods from a single part of Shenzhen.
(Econ, 7/23/11, p.69)
1988 The China Agribusiness Development Trust and Investment Corp. (CADTIC) was set up to channel domestic and foreign funds into the agricultural sector. By 1997 it was closed with reports of being involved in smuggling, tax evasion and ruinous real estate speculation.
1988 Atlanta-based United Parcel Service (UPS) first entered the Chinese market in a partnership with Sinotrans.
1988 China and Uruguay established diplomatic ties.
1988 In Colombia the direct election of mayors and town councils was begun to give municipalities control over a substantial amount of federal funds.
1988 In Czechoslovakia Jiri Ruml (1925-2004) helped re-launch Lidove Noviny, becoming its editor-in-chief. The Lidove Noviny daily had been an established paper until the communists took power in 1948 in then-Czechoslovakia and banned the anti-communist publication.
1988 Febres Cordero's four-year presidential term ended, but as the combative leader of the rightist Social Christians, Ecuador's largest and best organized party, he continued to dominate Congress and the courts for the next 15 years.
1988 The French TV show “Les Guignols de l’Info" was launched. It was based on the British show “Spitting Image" (1988-1991) and used puppets to lampoon politicians.
(Econ, 7/11/15, p.49)
1988 Controls on capital movement across borders were abandoned by France, Italy and other member states of the European Community.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-44)
1988 Pernod Ricard SA acquired the Irish whiskies Jameson, Paddy and Bushmills.
(WSJ, 9/7/05, p.B2)
1988 French Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre was expelled for defying the liberal reforms of the 1962-65 Vatican Council. The Vatican excommunicated Lefebvre after he consecrated four bishops without Rome's consent. The bishops also were excommunicated.
1988 In France Patrice Vic (31) jumped out of his 12th story apartment window. His death was later linked to counseling sessions and charges to the Church of Scientology.
(SFC, 11/23/96, p.A10)
1988 In Germany there was an attempted murder of Hans Titmeyer, later chief of the Bundesbank. Birgit Hogefeld, RAF member, was later convicted of taking part.
(WSJ, 11/6/96, p.A1)
1988 BMW began selling the 325iX all-wheel-drive sports sedan in the US. It stopped 3 years later.
(WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)
1988 In Guatemala Pres. Cerezo declared another blanket amnesty, approved by congress, that covered government acts from 1982-1988.
(SFC, 7/5/96, p.A13)
1988 Some 4,000 tons of toxic ash from an incinerator in Philadelphia, that wandered the oceans since 1986, was dumped in Lapierre, Haiti.
(SFC, 3/14/98, p.A10)
1988 In India Prannoy Roy set up New Delhi Television Ltd. (NDTV) in a rented 2-bedroom apartment and a staff of 8. In 1998 his operation inaugurated a 24-hour news channel on Rupert Murdoch's Star TV network.
(WSJ, 10/4/99, p.B1)
1988 American geologist James Moffett (b.1938), founder of Freeport-McMoRan (1981), oversaw the development of Grasberg in Indonesia, one of the world’s largest copper and gold mines.
(Econ, 1/2/16, p.50)
1988 Saddam Hussein began the construction of the “Hands of Victory" monument in Baghdad following the conclusion of war with Iran. In 2007 the government of PM Nouri al-Maliki ordered the destruction of the monument.
(WSJ, 2/21/07, p.A6)
1988 Iraq re-asserted its claim to Kuwait.
(SFC, 2/24/98, p.A9)
1988 The Iraqi assault on Kurdish villages was part of a campaign known as Anfal. Estimates held as many as 182,000 Kurds dead or missing.
(SFC, 4/18/03, p.A18)
1988 Iraqi archeologists unearthed a collection of artifacts from the Assyrian civilization of 800 BCE that became called the Treasure of Nimrud.
(WSJ, 6/6/03, p.A1)
1988 Israel repealed its anti-sodomy laws. The laws had not been enforced for 30 years.
1988 In Israel members of the multi-denominational Women of the Wall began coming to the Western Wall 11 times a year to pray on the first day of the new Jewish month, except on the New Year. They were not allowed to wear prayer shawls. A Supreme Court decision from 2003 ruled that allowing the group to pray with the shawls at the Western Wall constituted a danger to public safety.
1988 The Japanese anime film “Grave of the Fireflies" was made by Isao Takahata. It was based on Akiyuki Nosaka’s autobiographical novel (1967) of the same name recounting raids on Kobe in March 1945.
(SFEC, 10/31/99, DB p.9)(Econ., 4/4/15, p.16)
1988 In Japan the Recruit Scandal exposed leaders of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party, who were accused of accepting stock and cash bribes from the Recruit Co., a personnel recruiting and publishing conglomerate.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 216)
1988 In Jordan soon after the beginning of the "intifada," King Hussein renounced rights to the West Bank and retained a role as guardian of Jerusalem's holy places.
(SFC, 2/6/99, p.A13)
1988 Outgoing Pres. Amin Gemayel appointed Lebanese army commander Gen. Michel Aoun as interim prime minister.
(SFC, 4/27/05, p.A8)
1988 In Malaysia an amendment to the constitution denied the regular courts all jurisdiction over matters dealt with by the Muslim sharia courts.
(Econ, 6/2/07, p.42)
1988 In Mexico the government privatized Masa, Mexicana de Autobuses SA.
(WSJ, 8/7/96, p.A10)
1988 In Mexico the Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD) was founded.
(WSJ, 12/11/96, p.A18)
1988 Mauritius formed a National Computer Board to spur technology.
(SFC, 10/28/02, p.E6)
1988 Violence on New Caledonia ended after authorities in Paris agreed to a referendum on independence to be held in 10 years. Indigenous Kanak leaders pushing for independence had managed to get their islands re-listed as “non-self-governing" in the 1980s.
(Econ, 5/25/13, p.42)
1988 In New Zealand the first commercial bungee jumping operation began at Queenstown’s 154-foot-high Kawarau Bridge.
(SSFC, 11/10/13, p.M3)
1988 In Nigeria a newspaper expose forced officials to close the Ita Oko Island prison. Local authorities later reopened it for what appeared to be a failed $1 million effort to rehabilitate the gang members who dominate Lagos' streets.
1988 North Korea introduced a national public pension. As of 2013 less than a third of those aged 65 or more received one.
(Econ, 10/26/13, SR p.8)
1988 Benazir Bhutto (b.1953) authored her autobiography. She served 2 terms as prime minister of Pakistan (1988-1990, 1993-1996). In 2007 she published an update.
(Econ, 5/12/07, p.89)
1988 In Peshawar, Pakistan, “The Essential Guide for Preparation" by Sayyid Imam al-Sharif (b.~1950), aka Dr. Fadl, appeared and became one of the most important texts in training for jihadis. Sayyid Imam al-Sharif, a co-founder of al-Qaida, was jailed in Yemen in 2001 and transferred to Egypt in 2004, where he changed his radical position and published "Document of Right Guidance for Jihad Activity in Egypt and the World," also transliterated as "Rationalizing Jihad in Egypt and the World". In it he proclaimed “We are prohibited from committing aggression, even if the enemies of Islam do that."
1988 Sir Rabbie Namaliu (b.1947) began serving as Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea and continued to 1992.
1988 In Papua New Guinea Francis Ona threatened to close down the Panguna open-pit copper mine on Bougainville. He demanded half the profits for local landowners, $11.5 billion compensation for environmental damage, and independence for Bougainville.
(WSJ, 3/18/98, p.A1,14)
1988 In Peru Tupac Amaru kidnapped industrialist Hector Jeri, a 70-year-old former air force general. He spent 5 months in a cell until released by a payment of more than $1 million.
(SFC, 1/7/97, p.A10)
1988 In southern Peru Eduardo and Mirtha Ananos began making a cola drink. By 2003 their Kola Real was being marketed in Mexico and Ecuador.
(WSJ, 10/27/03, p.A1)(Econ, 10/11/03, p.69)
1988 In northern Peru a tomb was looted and its contents put on the black market. A golden head-dress, the image of a sea god, believed to have been taken from the La Mina archaeological site in the Jequetepeque valley, was recovered in 2006 by London police from a lawyer’s office.
1988 In the Philippines Ed Gerlach, American priest, started the Bahay Tuluyan center for street kids in the Ermita district (a former red-light area) of Manila.
(SFEC, 6/15/97, p.D1)
1988 In the Philippines Rogelio Roxas testified that Ferdinand Marcos had used the help of a Nevada mining engineer to import a smelter to melt down 1,000 tons of gold bullion and a 3-foot gold statue of Buddha filled with diamonds. The treasure had been confiscated from all over Asia by the Japanese.
(SFC, 10/12/97, p.A18)
1988 The Philippine Congress, at the urging of Mrs. Aquino, passed the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP), which limited individual landowners to 7 hectares of farmland, but the legislation was filled with loopholes.
(Econ, 12/10/05, p.49)
1988 The 10-part, 10-hour TV series Decalogue by Krzystof Kieslowski described everyday events in and around a Warsaw apartment complex.
(SFC, 4/23/99, p.C13)
1988 In Poland Mariusz T. raped and killed four boys in Piotrkow Trybunalski. His death sentence was commuted to 25 years under an amnesty announced when Poland shed communism in 1989. His release in 2014 caused a national uproar.
1988 Saudi-born Osama bin Laden founded al Qaida (the base), a Sunni fundamentalist operational hub for terrorist activities. The organization’s intent was to establish an Islamic caliphate throughout the world.
(SFC, 8/28/98, p.A3)(SSFC, 7/30/06, p.A10)
1988 The Scottish National Party adopted “Independence in Europe" as a slogan.
(Econ, 9/27/14, p.53)
1988 Hargeysa, the capital of Somaliland, was shelled for 2 months. Some 2,000 people were later believed killed and buried in mass graves.
(SFC, 7/11/98, p.A12)
1988 In South Africa Winnie Madikizela-Mandela assaulted and kidnapped a young activist and was later convicted on the charges. Lolo Sono beaten and his body was never found. It was reported that she played a role in as many as a dozen killings.
1988 In South Korea the sale of foreign tobacco was made legal.
(SFC, 8/26/97, p.C3)
1988 Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev announced the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan.
(SFC, 9/28/96, p.A8)
1988 In Russia Mikhail Khodorkovsky started a bank and began to manage government money. The bank later rigged the auction that allowed him and associates to acquire a majority stake in the Yukos oil company.
(Econ, 5/21/05, p.25)
1988 Singapore introduced “Group Representation Constituencies" (GRCs), which merged some single-member electoral divisions.
(Econ, 5/14/11, p.55)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constituencies_of_Singapore)
1988 Singapore‘s government took away some functions of the Housing Developing Board and handed them to new town councils, led by local MPs.
(Econ, 7/18/15, SR p.6)
1988 In Slovenia journalists of the weekly magazine Mladina ran news stories about secret arms deals between Yugoslavia and Ethiopia as well as political corruption.
(SFC, 4/14/97, p.A8)
1988 South Korea summoned the nation’s big bosses for an inquiry into the corporate funding of a foundation run by Dictator Chun Doo-hwan.
(Econ, 12/10/16, p.64)
1988 South Korea saw the formation of a National Headquarters for Labor Law Reform.
1988 South Korea introduced its National Pension Scheme.
(Econ, 4/16/15, p.14)
1988 In Spain the intelligence agency, CESID, kidnapped 3 street people to test an experimental tranquilizer they hoped to use on a fugitive Basque separatist leader.
(SFC, 9/18/96, p.A10)
1988 Chandrika Kumaratunga (42) watched her husband, a film star and rising politician in Sri Lanka, get killed by a political rival. Her mother and father had both served as prime ministers.
(SSFC, 11/9/03, p.A12)
1988 At Davos, Switzerland, during the World Economic Forum, Prime Ministers Papandreou of Greece and Ozal of Turkey embarked on a peace initiative, setting up a hot-line and vowing to avoid war.
(WSJ, 1/23/08, p.A8)
1988 Hon Hai, a small Taiwanese plastics manufacturer, opened a factory in Shenzhen, China. By 2009 it had grown to the size of a city with over a quarter of a million employees.
(Econ, 2/21/09, p.70)
1988 In Tibet Tashi Tsering completed his 15,000 word, trilingual Chinese-Tibetan-English dictionary. He wrote an autobiography in 1997 with 2 American professors titled: "The Struggle for Modern Tibet: The Autobiography of Tashi Tsering."
(WSJ, 9/4/97, p.A9)
1988 Nationalist movements rocked the USSR.
(TMC, 1994, p.1988)
1988 In Russia Yuri Churbanov, husband of Galina Brezhnev (d.1998), was convicted of taking bribes after a trial that exposed corruption at the highest levels of the Kremlin. Galina was the daughter of former Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev.
(SFC, 7/1/98, p.A22)
1988 In Switzerland banking regulators published the first Basel Capital Accord, Basel 1. It recognized that some loans and investments were less risky than others and weighed them accordingly. Work on the Basel 2 accords, Int’l. Convergence of Capital Measures and Capital Standards," began in 1996 and were published in 2004.
(Econ, 5/20/06, Survey p.10)
1988 The UN and World Meteorological Organization established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The authority issued ist first assessment on global warming in 1990 and continued with reports every 5 years.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intergovernmental_Panel_on_Climate_Change)(SFC, 11/4/99, p.A5)
1988 Enrique Iglesias, former Uruguayan foreign minister, became head of IDB, the Inter-American Development Bank. In 2005 he was named head of the Ibero-American summits.
(Econ, 6/4/05, p.37)
1988 In Uzbekistan Islam Karimov rose to the top spot of the Uzbek Communist Party.
(WSJ, 9/8/98, p.A23)
1988 Pope John Paul II excommunicated Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre of France who stood for maintaining the Church's traditions without change.
(WSJ, 8/17/95, p.A-1)
1988 Vietnam began letting US military search teams into the countryside to look for the remains missing US servicemen.
(SFC, 5/25/98, p.A4)
1988 Vietnam’s exports totaled about $1 billion. In 2004 exports reached $30 billion.
(SFC, 5/30/06, p.C1)
1988 In Zimbabwe Kevin Woods, Michael Smith and Philip Conjwayo were convicted of plotting a car bombing against exiled members of South Africa's now-governing African National Congress. The explosives detonated before reaching their target in the city of Bulawayo, killing the Zimbabwean driver. In 2006 Pres. Mugabe pardoned the 3 men on humanitarian grounds.
1988-1989 In Sudan the war induced famine killed some 250,000 people.
(SFC, 11/3/98, p.A10)
1988-1990 Roseanne was the top ranking US network show on television for two seasons with rankings of 25.5 and 23.4%.
(WSJ, 4/24/95, p.R-5)
1988-1991 In Israel Michael Bruno (1932-1996) as governor of the Bank of Israel helped to formulate the government’s economic stabilization policy.
(SFC, 12/27/96, p.A24)
1988-1992 The president of South Korea was Roh Tae Woo. In 1995 he confessed to presiding over a huge slush fund with some $650 million in concealed contributions. Mr. Woo was arrested on charges that he received $307 mil. in bribes from 30 business leaders during his term as president.
(WSJ, 10/30/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 11/17/95, p.A-1)(WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A1)
1988-1994 In Liverpool, England, Dr. Dick van Velzen, a Dutch pathologist, cut thousands of parts from children who died during this period for research without the knowledge of their parents.
(Econ, 10/11/08, p.80)
1988-1994 Carlos Salinas was president of Mexico. His secretary, Justo Ceya, was ordered to be arrested in 1998 on charges that he illegally amassed a fortune while in office.
(SFC, 4/8/97, p.A6)(SFC, 7/23/98, p.A10)
1988-1997 A separatist war on Papua New Guinea’ island of Bougainville claimed about 5,000 lives over this period and led to the closure of a big copper mine run by Rio Tinto.
(Econ, 4/8/17, p.34)
1988-1998 The fighting in Kashmir left 300,000 dead over this period.
(SFC, 6/4/98, p.C2)
1988-2013 China’s panda population increased from 1,114 to 1,864 during this period. By 2016 China counted 67 protected panda reserves.
(Econ, 9/10/16, p.36)
and then they started stepping it up, look at how long they have been manipulating events for, it's time to change as, standardz, hahahahahahaha, :) #edio
and then they started stepping it up, look at how long they have been manipulating events for, it's time to change as, standardz, hahahahahahaha, :) #edio