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Friday, 11 August 2017

Gaston Zani - Atmospheric (Original Mix)



well it's just about time, for me to go, on my own solo, "atmospheric", journey so i hope you, enjoyed all the tracks, as much as me, and i thank you, for sticking with me, over the last few day's, this is the least i have posted, in well.... years, too many tbf, but we all have our own, crosses to bear, and burdens to alleviate, so i hope you, enjoyed all the track's, a much as me as standardz, hahahahaha, :) #edio

Gaston Zani - Mad Or Nah! (Tony Dee Remix)



you know, if you have to ask yourselves, if your, "mad or nah!", then your not, as mad people don't understand they are mad, and lose their sense of internal reasoning, and if you asked the question, then you still have it as, standardz, hahahahaha, :) #edio

Sezer Uysal - Boycott (Ferhat Albayrak Remix) [Jeton Records]



 i call for an immediate, "boycott", of all companies, who directly or indirectly profit, from the suffering of others, such as arm's manufacturing plants, and corporations and subsidiaries who continually make money, from the deaths of others, and all government's, who actively endorse these monstrous activities, i deem as no-longer fit to govern, and should immediately head to debriefing, and to foster the spirit of good, will disclose all pertinent information, that can help life to recover, and heal ourselves, as well as the planet as, standardz, hahahaha, ;) #edio

Da Rua - Step Two (Original Mix) [Techaway Records]



i know it's hard, but you just have to pick yourself up and try again, keep on going, one step then, "step two", and before you know it, your moving forwards as, standardz, hahahaha, :) #edio

Rhoowax - The Brick (Pasquale Caracciolo Remix) [Dirtyclub Music]


when you see the summit, way off in the distance like a finish line, in a marathon, but you see, "the brick", wall looming ahead, the wall is a much-feared and much-discussed phenomenon, in marathon running. Runners speak ominously, about a sudden wave of fatigue, that sets in at about 20 miles, into a marathon. At this point, they say, the race is half over. but it's not, that's when the real test set's in, at this point, it becomes a mental battle, as your mind makes it real, and you control your mind, so get mad if it help's, you to summon up that last push of energy, let it bubble and well up inside you, like the burning of the sun, and channel it and release as, standardz, hahahahaha, :) #edio

Dulcet - Reflections (Original Mix) [Astrowave]



when you see the grotesqueness of human nature, and the lost, "reflections" of humanity, staring back at you, from the broken dreams of reality as, standardz, hahahahaha, :) #edio


Jesus Nava - The Chant (Original Mix) [Ausara Recordings]



there is no safe word, no matter what, "the chant", is that you, sing out with as, standardz, hahahahahahaha, :) #edio

DJ PP, Jack Mood, TWISTED MOON - Vandersex (Original Mix) [PPMUSIC]


it's not like a euro-trip with, "Vandersex", (kinky stuff when your on the road), although it does sound somewhat more appealing, than running the wastelands, trying to catch enough giant rats, for a burger as, standardz, hahahahaha, :) #edio

Gianluca Rattalino, Giacomo De Falco - Grooving (Original Mix)



anyways instead of talking about, time lines and possibilities, and all that let's be, "grooving", on to the summit as, standardz.hahahahaha, :) #edio

De La Swing - Lockout (Original Mix) [20/20 Editions]



believe me, you don't want to be left outside, during the, "lockout", all manner of mutant fell beast, and c.h.u.d's, (cannibalistic humanoid underground dwellers), and thing's, that roam in the night, looking for their next meal as, standardz, hahahahaha, :) #edio

Gabriel Moraes - Totem (Original Mix) [Dear Deer]



do not follow the, "totem", (a natural object or animal, believed by a particular society, to have spiritual significance, and adopted by it as an emblem), of the dark-sun rising, you will become lost in it, devoured by it's madness, do not open the black gate, open the white one as, standardz, hahahahahaha, :) #edio

DJ Entwan - Hot (Original Mix) [Polar Noise]



trust me, you do not want to go, where they lead, I've been down that, "hot", melted and twisted road, i have seen, where it leads to, the twisted mangled metal frames, of once majestic buildings, reduced to a twisted work of metal, like some strange sort of modern art, the puddles of plasma, from what used to be, where peep's once stood, and the smell of sulphur, and ionised gas, and the sky, is a never ending twilight, like being lost, beneath a giant orange dust storm, the pale flickering of light, just barely getting through, nowhere is clean, nowhere is safe, so i say no thank's, it's not for me, and it's not for you, not if i have anything to say about it, and i do as, standardz, hahahaha, :) #edio

Nohak - Light (Original Mix) [Blue Monkey Records]



you know, you should be careful, where you place your allegiances, and whom or what you trust, even the devil, can appear as an angel of, "light", to blind you, from the truth as, standardz, hahahaha, :) #edio

Diego Lima - Itergalactic (Original Mix) [DOC Music]


it does not require, repeated hot test fires, to see if the new rm-25 engine, is powerful enough for a, "Itergalactic", (galactic trip), now stick with this logic, nasa is known for planning, every single aspect, of every flight, mission, and log, with anal retentive detail, now the test facility for the rm-25 is a giant fixed building, which is built around the engine, nasa does not throw huge sums of money and planning and building, for years upon years, without knowing what its doing, and would not have gone to all that effort, just to test a engine, there is absolutely, no other reason, for the giant test rig, other than weather manipulation, and modification, they have fired this huge toxic chemical spewing machine up, quite regularly, (with video footage of it, and satellite footage of the after effects, i.e hurricanes), now in all the other mission's, they built scale models, and full sized one's, no so called fixed engine test site, as they can still work out, all they need to from it (a scale model), they would not have spent the billions, upon billions, to build the engine, and the huge building that is housed in as guess work, wake up, nasa is the public relations of the military industrial complex, which has been deceiving everyone, just about, with their dinosaur technology, i have declassified document's, proving they have been in possession of exotic weapons, such as a negative particle beam, /(instantly de-atomized), and advanced propulsion, guidance, communications, a.i and the rest, for quite some time, they create problems, so they can acquire more funding, and are poisoning our atmosphere, on the global scale, action must be taken as, standardz, hahahaaha, :) #edio

Alan Nieves - Butterfly (Original Mix) [New Violence Records]


it is said in chaos theory, that the flapping of a, "butterfly", wing half way around the world, can ultimately be the cause, of localised weather disturbances, (hurricanes), the butterfly effect is the sensitive dependence on initial conditions, in which a small change, in one state of a deterministic nonlinear system, can result in large differences, in a later state. i call the theory, and raise it to this, it is not the cause, it is merely the final straw, that broke the camels back, a tint nudge, a single integer, on the already hugely active scale of fuckery, (ahem NASA quit it), it is not the cause, but the thing, that pushes it over the edge, from potential fuckery to physical as, standardz, hahahaha, :) #edio

Martin Kinrus - Outcast (Original Mix) [refused.]



i may be the odd ball, the outsider an, "outcast", and a underdog, with slim prospect of success, and even narrower hope of glory, but i like those odd's, it give's me a challenge as, standardz, hahahahahaha, :) #edio

Dok & Martin - Enchanted Mystery (The Reactivitz Remix) [Orange Recordings]



and so we begin another, "enchanted mystery", tour into the unknown realms, of rhythm and bass,. onward's and upward's, to the summit as, standardz, hahahahaha, :) #edio

Darmec - Do no wrong (Hell Driver Remix) [Electrovino Records]


ammmmm back mo fo's, for another, epic journey, in the unknown realms, of rhythm and bass!!, and i'm finally here and i know, i took my time, but i had so much to do, it's been a very productive day, i caught up on my alternate pages, (mostly), and even cooked home made spaghetti bologna for four, it seem's like i can, "do no wrong", so sit back, plug in, turn up, do whatever it is, you have to do!!, to enjoy the music!, that much more!, Control this is, flight 420 requesting, go no/go!, on primary?, this is control, permission to get l.a.f, and go for, full blaze!!, you better, strap yourself in, quick time!, because we, have a launch in progress, in t - minus 10 seconds and counting down, hope your ready!,........ 5.......4.......3.......2.......1.......0 power to all drive's, crank up the phonic reactor, engage harmonic reinforcement, increase the warp bubble, charge barium crystal capacitor's, activate inertial dampening field, navigation on-line, and retract the umbilical, mirror, signal, manoeuvre, and we, are away as, standardz, hahahahahahaha, :) #edio
www.ediobangers.blogspot.com

www.ediobangers.blogspot.com
delete fb y/n?

D.R.N.D.Y - All I Ever Wanted (Original Mix)



you knew, i had to give you, one more, right?, but seeing as fb is such a pile of crap, "all i ever wanted", was to post music and some lolz to make peep's happy, but after 2 hours of creating the last post, and reformatting it so fb would accept it, and then it hit me with this, A status can't be more, than 63206 characters in length, but this one contains 65513 characters. Please make it a little shorter, and try again. even after i removed, all the images, double line spaces, and spelled all the bastardised words, right again, it still wont post, yet it posted to my blog with images, not a problem, so sod it fb is shite the end, and with that, I AM out as, standardz, :) #edio
end transmission :) peace

Artslaves - Blackbird (Original Mix) [Deeperfect Records]



instead of talking about the, "blackbird", lets talk about the The Lockheed Martin SR-72 is a conceptualised hyper-sonic UAV intended for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance proposed by American company Lockheed Martin to succeed the retired Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird The SR-72, the proposed successor to the SR-71 Blackbird retired in 1998 is expected to fill what is considered a coverage gap between surveillance satellites, manned aircraft, and unmanned aerial vehicles for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) and strike missions. With the growth of anti-satellite weapons, anti-access/area denial tactics, and counter-stealth technologies, a high-speed aircraft could penetrate protected airspace and observe or strike a target before enemies could detect or intercept it. The proposed reliance on extremely high speed to penetrate defended airspace is considered a significant conceptual departure from the emphasis on stealth in fifth-generation jet fighter programs and projected drone developments. There were unconfirmed reports about the SR-72 dating back to 2007, when various sources disclosed that Lockheed Martin was developing an aeroplane able to fly six times the speed of sound or Mach 6 (4,000 mph; 6,400 km/h; 3,500 kn) for the United States Air Force. Skunk Works' development work on the SR-72 was first published by Aviation Week & Space Technology on 1 November 2013 To attain such speeds, Lockheed Martin has been collaborating with Aerojet Rocketdyne since 2006 on an appropriate engine. The company is developing the system from the scramjet-powered HTV-3X, which was cancelled in 2008. The SR-72 is envisioned with an air-breathing hyper-sonic propulsion system that has the ability to accelerate from standstill to Mach 6.0 using the same engine, making it about twice as fast as the SR-71. The challenge is to design an engine to encompass the flight regimes of subsonic, supersonic and hyper-sonic speeds. Using turbine compression, turbojet engines can work at zero speed and usually perform best up to Mach 2.2. Ramjets, using aerodynamic compression with subsonic combustion, perform poorly under Mach 0.5 and are most efficient around Mach 3, being able to go up to around Mach 6. The SR-71's specially designed engines converted to low-speed ramjets by redirecting the airflow around the core and into the afterburner for speeds greater than Mach 2.5. Finally, scramjets with supersonic combustion cover the range of high supersonic to hyper-sonic speeds. The SR-72 is to use a turbine-based combined cycle (TBCC) system to use a turbine engine at low speeds and a scramjet engine at high speeds. The turbine and ramjet engines share common inlet and nozzle, with different airflow paths in between. At speeds of Mach 5 and above, aerodynamic friction becomes hot enough to melt conventional metallic air frames, so engineers are looking to composites such as high-performance carbon, ceramic, and metal mixes, for fabrication of critical components. Such composites have been commonly used in intercontinental ballistic missiles and the retired US Space Shuttle. Although the SR-72 is envisioned as an ISR and strike platform, no payloads have been specified, likely because current payloads will be insufficient on an aircraft flying at Mach 6 up to 80,000 feet (24,000 m) high requiring hundreds of miles to turn. New sensors and weapons will likely have to be created specifically to operate at such speeds. Construction of an optionally-piloted scaled demonstrator is planned to start in 2018. The demonstrator will be about 60 ft (18 m) long, about the size of an Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor, and powered by one full-scale engine to fly for several minutes at Mach 6 Flights of the demonstrator are to be conducted starting in 2023. The SR-72 flight testing follows the planned timeline for the hyper-sonic High Speed Strike Weapon. The SR-72 is to be similar in size to the SR-71 at over 100 ft (30 m) long and have the same range, with entry into service by 2030. The SR-72 follows the US Air Force's hyper-sonic road map for developing a hyper-sonic strike weapon by 2020, and a penetrating ISR aircraft by 2030. At the time of the concept's unveiling, Lockheed Martin had engaged in talks with government officials, but has not secured funding for the demonstrator or engine. On 13 November 2013, Air Force Chief of Staff General Mark Welsh revealed that the service was interested in the SR-72's supersonic capabilities, but had not spoken with Lockheed about the aircraft. Its high speed appeals to the service to reduce the time an adversary would have to react to an operation. They are pursuing hyper-sonic technology, but don't yet have the material ability to construct a full-size plane like the unmanned SR-72. The SR-72 was unveiled in the midst of sequestration budget cuts that have forced the Air Force to prioritise acquisition projects and sacrifice mission readiness. By the mid-2020s, it is believed that foreign countries will produce and export advanced aerial technologies that could end up in battle-spaces against the United States. This drives the Air Force to further develop new systems, including hyper-sonic, to replace legacy systems that would be outclassed in those situations.The SR-72 may face significant challenges to being accepted by the Air Force, as they are opting to develop the Northrop Grumman RQ-180 stealth UAV to perform the task of conducting ISR missions in contested airspace. Compared to the SR-72, the RQ-180 is less complex to design and manufacture, less prone to problems with acquisition, and can enter service as soon as 2015 In December 2014, NASA awarded Lockheed Martin a contract to study the feasibility of building the SR-72's propulsion system using existing turbine engine technologies. The $892,292 contract funds a design study to determine the viability of a TBCC propulsion system by combining one of several current turbine engines, with a very low Mach ignition Dual Mode Ramjet (DMRJ). NASA previously funded a Lockheed Martin study that found speeds up to Mach 7 could be achieved with a dual-mode engine combining turbine and ramjet technologies. The problem with hyper-sonic propulsion has always been the gap between the highest speed capabilities of a turbojet, from around Mach 2.2 to the lowest speed of a ramjet at Mach 4. Typical turbine engines cannot achieve high enough speeds for a ramjet to take over and continue accelerating. The NASA-Lockheed Martin study is looking at the possibility of a higher-speed turbine engine or a ramjet that can function in a turbine engine's slower flight envelope; the DARPA HTV-3X had demonstrated a low-speed ramjet that could operate below Mach 3. Existing turbofan engines powering jet fighters and other experimental designs are being considered for modification. If the study is successful, NASA will fund a demonstrator to test the DMRJ in a flight research vehicle. In March 2016, Lockheed CEO Hewson stated that the company was on the verge of a technological breakthrough that would allow its conceptual SR-72 hyper-sonic plane to reach Mach 6. A hyper-sonic demonstrator aircraft the size of an F-22 stealth fighter could be built for less than $1 billion.Perhaps some of the most interesting and bizarre aircraft over the years have been the experimental and research aircraft of NASA, the Air Force, and other groups pushing the cutting edge of technology. Many of these designs pioneered concepts we now take for granted. Others were perhaps ahead of their time or simply impractical considering the technology available. Still more were unappreciated in their time and suffered the consequences of shortsightedness and bureaucracy. Regardless, research aircraft are constantly pushing the limits of current design practice and capabilities.
North American
XB-70 Valkyrie
Strategic Bomber Prototype
High-Speed Research Aircraft
The B-70 bomber program resulted from an Air Force requirement for a high-speed, high-altitude strategic bomber to replace the B-52. North American engineers utilized NACA studies dealing with optimum Mach 3-6 configurations to develop the winning B-70 design. The aircraft was shaped to remain within its Mach cone throughout the flight regime thereby reducing drag and increasing lift. The latter was accomplished by manipulating the high pressure of the shock wave beneath the wing to generate compression lift. In addition, the wing tips were designed to pivot downward up to 65° to increase this compression lift while also providing greater directional stability.
Unfortunately, budget cuts of the late 1950s and early 1960s gutted the XB-70 advanced bomber project, and only two unarmed aerodynamic prototypes were actually built. Despite their exceptional performance, the XB-70 program had been cancelled by the time the Air Force flight tests were completed. The two prototypes were then transferred to NASA as high-speed research aircraft to prepare the way for supersonic transports. Both Valkyries served in this function well, flying 129 missions to study the aerodynamic, control, and heating issues associated with flight at Mach 2 to 3.
Tragedy struck on the 95th flight, however, when an F-104 flew too close to the second XB-70 prototype during a photo shoot. The fighter became caught up in the giant bomber's trailing vortices and the two planes collided before falling to earth in a fatal crash. The sole remaining XB-70 Valkyrie continued to fly until 1969 when it was placed in the USAF Museum.
Construction had also started on a third XB-70 prototype that carried a crew of four and would have been much closer to the final production design. As managers struggled to keep the B-70 program alive, proposals were made to equip this third aircraft with even more extensive research capabilities than the earlier prototypes had received. Among the proposals were plans to use the aircraft as a high-altitude astronomical observatory, a recoverable first stage booster for launching payloads into orbit, a platform for launching anti-satellite weapons, a high-altitude communications relay, a high-speed propulsion test craft, and a vehicle to test methods of reducing radar cross section. Although construction of this aircraft was well underway, it was cancelled prior to completion.
Despite its failure to go into production, the B-70 Valkyrie provided invaluable high-speed flight test data that helped to bridge the gap between supersonic and hyper-sonic travel. Information collected during its test flights is still used by engineers today.
Last modified 17 March 2012
HISTORY:
First Flight 21 September 1964
Service Entry
did not enter service
CREW: (XB-70A) two: pilot, co-pilot
(B-70A) four: pilot, co-pilot, navigator/bombardier, defensive systems officer
ESTIMATED COST:
$700 million (prototype)
AIR-FOIL SECTIONS:
Wing Root 0.30 Hex (Mod)
Wing Tip
0.70 Hex (Mod)
DIMENSIONS:
Length 185.83 ft (56.69 m) without pitot tube
192.17 ft (58.63 m) with pitot tube
Wingspan 105.00 ft (32.03 m)
Height 30.75 ft (9.38 m)
Wing Area 6,298 ft² (586.2 m²)
Canard Area
415.6 ft² (38.68 m²)
EIGHTS:
Empty 300,000 lb (136,365 kg)
Normal Takeoff 534,700 lb (243,045 kg)
Max Takeoff 542,000 lb (246,365 kg)
Fuel Capacity internal: unknown
external: unknown
Max Payload
20,000 lb (9,070 kg) planned for production B-70
PROPULSION:
Power plant six General Electric J-93 after-burning turbojets
Thrust 180,000 lb (800.71 kN)
Fuel Type JP-6
PERFORMANCE:
Max Level Speed at altitude: 2,056 mph (3,310 km/h) at 73,000 ft (22,270 m), Mach 3.1
at sea level: unknown
cruise speed: 2,000 mph (3,200 km/h) at 72,000 ft (21,965 m), Mach 3.0
Initial Climb Rate unknown
Service Ceiling 77,350 ft (23,600 m)
Range typical: 3,725 nm (6,900 km) [XB-70]
typical: 6,600 nm (12,230 km) [B-70]
ferry: unknown
g-Limits unknown
ARMAMENT:
Gun none
Stations production model designed with 2 internal bomb bays
Air-to-Air Missile none
Air-to-Surface Missile none
Bomb up to 14 nuclear bombs planned
Other none
KNOWN VARIANTS:
XB-70A-1 First prototype that was capable of only Mach 2.5 due to structural and aerodynamic limitations
XB-70A-2 Second prototype with a redesigned wing, structural improvements, and improved hydraulics allowing flight at Mach 3, vehicle was lost after an in-flight collision
XB-70A-3 Proposed third prototype, cancelled during construction
B-70A Proposed production model; 200 were to be built, cancelled
RS-70A Proposed reconnaissance model; 150 were to be built, cancelled
KNOWN OPERATORS:
United States (US Army Air Force)
United States (NASA)
3-VIEW SCHEMATIC:
X-36 McDonnell Douglas
X-36
Tailless Agility
Research Aircraft
DESCRIPTION:
Aircraft designers have been exploring planes without horizontal or vertical tail control surfaces for many decades. Such a plane would be simpler and potentially less expensive to build, more manoeuvrable, lighter, create less drag, and possess greater stealth characteristics. However, previous attempts suffered from excessive control instabilities that were not solvable with technology available at the time. That limitation has changed with the development of computerised fly-by-wire control systems able to deflect control surfaces far faster than a human pilot can. This technology makes it possible to control very unstable configurations.
To further research the feasibility of applying tailless technology to future stealthy and agile fighters, NASA contracted McDonnell Douglas to build two unmanned 28% scale research vehicles based on a potential fighter concept previously developed in a company design study. The resulting prototypes, designated the X-36, had no vertical or horizontal tail surfaces. The X-36 was instead manoeuvred using canards, split ailerons, and a thrust-vectoring nozzle. The X-36 was flown remotely by transmitting data from an on board video camera and microphone to a pilot-in-the-loop ground station equipped with a "virtual cockpit." The cockpit featured a heads-up-display and a moving-map display giving the pilot a complete picture of the aircraft's state.
The original X-36 flight test program began in May 1997 and lasted 25 weeks. This period included 31 flights that focused primarily on the design's low-speed high-angle-of-attack performance. The X-36 reached altitudes of over 20,000 ft (6,100 m), speeds in excess of 230 mph (370 km/h), and angles of attack up to 40° in a total of 15 hr and 38 min of flight.
Although the program evaluated four different sets of flight control software, an additional two flights were funded by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to evaluate the Reconfigurable Control for Tailless Fighter Aircraft (RESTORE) software. These final flights, conducted in December 1998, demonstrated the adaptability of a neural-net algorithm to compensate for in-flight damage to control surfaces such as flaps, ailerons, and rudders.
With the flight test program completed, both X-36 airframes were placed in flyable storage condition in a hangar at NASA Dryden in California. The two were maintained for possible use in future research efforts such as testing a highly advanced reconfigurable flight control system. The only X-36 that flew during the flight testing programs has since been donated by Boeing and placed on display at the National Museum of the US Air Force in Ohio.
Last modified 16 May 2011
HISTORY:
First Flight 17 May 1997
CREW: none aboard, one pilot in a ground station
ESTIMATED COST:
$10 million
AIR FOIL SECTIONS:
Wing Root unknown
Wing Tip
unknown
DIMENSIONS:
Length 19.00 ft (5.80 m)
Wingspan 10.00 ft (3.05 m)
Height 3.00 ft (0.915 m)
Wing Area unknown
Canard Area
unknown
WEIGHTS:
Empty unknown
Normal Takeoff unknown
Max Takeoff 1,250 lb (565 kg)
Fuel Capacity internal: unknown
external: unknown
Max Payload
unknown
PROPULSION:
Power plant one Williams International F112 turbofan
Thrust 700 lb (3.11 kN)
PERFORMANCE:
Max Level Speed at altitude: 235 mph (380 km/h)
at sea level: unknown
Initial Climb Rate unknown
Service Ceiling at least 20,200 ft (6,160 m)
Range unknown
Endurance unknown
g-Limits unknown
KNOWN VARIANTS:
X-36-1 First tailless research aircraft
X-36-2 Second tailless research aircraft
KNOWN OPERATORS:
United States (NASA)
3-VIEW SCHEMATIC:
X-36
X-35 Lockheed Martin
X-35
Fighter Demonstrator
DESCRIPTION:
As part of the Joint Strike Fighter project, Lockheed Martin was funded to build the X-35 demonstrator to compete against the Boeing X-32. The winner of this competition would receive a major contract to develop a production fighter for the US Air Force, US Navy, US Marine Corps, and UK Royal Navy.
Lockheed was joined by partners Northrop Grumman and British Aerospace in developing an aircraft resembling the larger F-22. The X-35 was powered by an advanced engine derived from that used on the F-22 and fed by two side intakes mounted beneath swept wings. To meet the needs of the various services, three variants of the X-35 were designed and test flown between 2000 and 2001. The conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) X-35A was developed for the US Air Force, the short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) X-35B for the US Marines and UK Royal Navy, and the carrier-based (CV) X-35C for the US Navy.
However, Lockheed was actually only funded to construct two prototypes for evaluation. The X-35A, first to be completed, was used for early flights before being modified and fitted with a second engine. This additional engine, a shaft-driven lift-fan system plus roll control jets along the wings, was coupled to the primary engine to provide the lift for vertical flight. This modified air frame was re designated the X-35B for completion of the STOVL portion of the evaluation process.
During the three-month conversion process, test flight duties were assumed by the X-35C demonstrator for the Navy. This model featured an enlarged wing of greater span and area for larger fuel capacity. The X-35C was also equipped with enlarged horizontal tails and flaperons for greater control effectiveness during low-speed carrier approaches.
Once the conversion of the X-35A to the X-35B was complete, Lockheed proceeded with the most challenging portion of the flight test demonstration effort. The use of two separate engines to meet the vertical flight requirement was inspired by the Russian Yak-141. The additional lift fan fitted to the X-35B was powered by the F119 engine but provided an independent source of thrust in hover mode. While the hover method adopted by Boeing in the X-32 was considered more conventional, Lockheed argued that the lift fan approach offered more room for growth in aircraft's future design evolution.
The US military appeared to agree with Lockheed Martin's argument in October 2001 when the company was selected to proceed with the development of a production F-35 fighter.
Data below for X-35A
Last modified 26 September 2009
HISTORY:
First Flight (X-35A) 24 October 2000
(X-35B) 23 June 2001
(X-35C) 16 December 2000
Service Entry
see F-35
CREW: one: pilot
ESTIMATED COST:
(X-35A) $28 million [1994$]
(X-35B) $35 million [1994$]
(X-35C) $38 million [1994$]
AIRFOIL SECTIONS:
Wing Root unknown
Wing Tip
unknown
DIMENSIONS:
Length (X-35A) 50.50 ft (15.41 m)
(X-35C) 50.80 ft (15.50 m)
Wingspan (X-35A) 32.78 ft (10.00 m)
(X-35C) 43.00 ft (13.12 m)
(X-35C) 29.83 ft (9.10 m) folded
Height unknown
Wing Area (X-35A) 450 ft² (41.8 m²)
(X-35C) 540 ft² (50.2 m²)
Canard Area
not applicable
WEIGHTS:
Empty (X-35A/C) about 22,000 lb (9,980 kg)
(X-35B) about 23,500 lb (10,660 kg)
Normal Takeoff unknown
Max Takeoff about 50,000 lb (22,680 kg)
Fuel Capacity internal: unknown
external: unknown
Max Payload
about 15,000 lb (6,805 kg)
PROPULSION:
Powerplant (X-35A/C) one Pratt & Whitney F119-611 turbofan
(X-35B) one Pratt & Whitney F119-611 turbofan and one Rolls-Royce/Allison shaft-driven lift-fan
Thrust (PW) about 35,000 lb (155 kN)
(RR) about 18,000 lb (80 kN)
PERFORMANCE:
Max Level Speed at altitude: about Mach 1.5
at sea level: unknown
Initial Climb Rate unknown, but similar to F-16
Service Ceiling unknown
Range (X-35B) 1,080 nm (2,000 km)
(X-35C) 1,620 nm (3,000 km)
Endurance unknown
g-Limits unknown
KNOWN VARIANTS:
X-35A Experimental multi-role conventional takeoff (CTOL) fighter for the US Air Force, recorded 27.4 flight hours in 27 flights from 24 October 2000 to 22 November 2000 achieving a maximum speed of Mach 1.05, a maximum altitude of 34,000 ft (10,360 m), and +5g loading; 1 built
X-35B Experimental multi-role short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) fighter for the US Marine Corps and UK Royal Navy equipped with a lift fan in place of a fuel tank; the X-35A was converted into the X-35B for STOVL tests completing 21.5 hours of flight time in 39 flights (17 vertical take-offs, four short take-offs, six short landings, 27 vertical landings) from 23 June 2001 and 30 July 2001
X-35C Experimental navalized (CV) fighter similar to the X-35A but with larger wings for increased fuel capacity as well as larger horizontal tails and control surfaces, recorded 58 hours of flight time in 73 flights from 16 December 2000 and 10 March 2001 achieving a maximum speed of Mach 1.22 and completing over 250 simulated carrier landings; 1 built
F-35 Production fighter
KNOWN OPERATORS:
United Kingdom (Royal Navy)
United States (US Air Force)
United States (US Marine Corps)
United States (US Navy)
3-VIEW SCHEMATIC:
X-35
X-33 Lockheed Martin
X-33
Reusable Launch Vehicle Prototype
DESCRIPTION:
With the cost of space flight still hovering at around $10,000 per pound, NASA spearheaded the development of a number of potentially revolutionary technology demonstration projects. The purpose of these efforts was to reduce the cost of lifting a pound into orbit to as little as $1,000. The most significant project under the umbrella of the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) was the Lockheed Martin X-33 announced in 1996. The ultimate goal of the X-33 was to develop a completely reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle to replace the aging Space Shuttle by about 2010.
Although both McDonnell Douglas and Rockwell competed for the X-33 contract, Lockheed's lifting-body wedge shape incorporating a number of advanced features was judged the most promising. Among the critical new technologies Lockheed planned to develop to make SSTO possible were very strong and lightweight composite fuel tanks, an integrated thermal protection system to make the heat-absorbing tiles used on the Space Shuttle unnecessary, automated flight control systems, and linear aerospike engines believed to be more efficient than standard rocket engines (find out more at the Aerospaceweb.org Aerospike Engine site).
Most importantly, the X-33 needed to demonstrate levels of serviceability, rapid turn-around time between flights, and low-cost maintenance as yet unseen in launch vehicles. If the X-33 technology demonstrator proved successful, NASA and Lockheed Martin hoped to develop a full-sized vehicle twice the size of the X-33 called the VentureStar that would supersede the Space Shuttle as America's primary launch platform.
The ambitious project set in motion a rapid test program with the first flight set for early 1999. Unfortunately, these goals proved too ambitious since the X-33 was beset by a number of difficult and time-consuming technical problems. Early wind tunnel and flight tests of X-33 models proved the wedge shape to be longitudinally unstable requiring changes to the control surfaces. In addition, the aerospike engine suffered development delays, as did the thermal protection system. Most critical, however, was the failure of the composite fuel tanks that eventually forced Lockheed Martin to abandon them altogether. Aluminum tanks were instead substituted, but the change forced modifications to the vehicle structure and increased overall weight.
Individually, each of these difficulties was probably not fatal, but together they convinced NASA that the X-33 relied on too many untried and unproven technologies that could not be developed for as low a cost and with as great a reliability as the X-33 performance requirements demanded. As a result, NASA cancelled further spending on the X-33 in March 2001 after the vehicle was about 75% complete.
Lockheed Martin had already invested over $200 million of company funds in the project, and NASA's cancellation left the firm free to complete and fly the X-33 alone. Lockheed elected not to do so, however, and the VentureStar program appears to have been permanently shelved. Nevertheless, Congressional supporters of the X-33 argued for a renewal of the project as a US Air Force program, but this idea too has never progressed any further.
Data below estimated for X-33
Last modified 26 September 2009
HISTORY:
First Flight never flown
CREW: none
ESTIMATED COST:
unknown
AIRFOIL SECTIONS:
Wing Root unknown
Wing Tip
unknown
DIMENSIONS:
Length (X-33) 69.00 ft (21.05 m)
(VentureStar) 127.00 ft (38.75 m)
Wingspan 68 ft (20.74 m)
Height 22.17 ft (6.76 m)
Wing Area 2,125 ft² (198 m²)
Canard Area
not applicable
WEIGHTS:
Empty 62,700 lb (28,440 kg)
Normal Takeoff unknown
Max Takeoff (X-33) 273,300 lb (123,965 kg)
(VentureStar) 2,186,000 lb (991,550 lb)
Fuel Capacity 30,000 lb (13,605 kg) liquid oxygen
180,000 lb (81,645 kg) liquid hydrogen
210,000 lb (95,255 kg) total
Max Payload
unknown
PROPULSION:
Powerplant (X-33) two XRS-2200 linear aerospike rocket engines
(VentureStar) seven RS-2200 linear aerospike rocket engines
Thrust (X-33) 410,000 lb (1,823 kN) at sea level
(X-33) 536,000 lb (2,384 kN) in vacuum
(VentureStar) 3,017,000 lb (13,420 kN) at sea level
(VentureStar) 3,465,000 lb (15,414 kN) in vacuum
PERFORMANCE:
Max Level Speed at altitude: 11,000 mph (17,690 km/h), Mach 15
at sea level: not applicable
Initial Climb Rate unknown
Service Ceiling (X-33) 250,000 ft (76,270 m)
(VentureStar) orbital
Range 825 nm (1,530 km)
g-Limits unknown
KNOWN VARIANTS:
X-33 53%-scale flight demonstrator of the full-sized vehicle that was to be powered to Mach 15 by two prototype linear aerospike engines, vehicle was to be capable of suborbital flights up to an altitude of about 50 miles; 1 under construction but cancelled when about 75% complete
VentureStar Proposed full-scale reusable launch vehicle propelled into orbit by seven linear aerospike engines; not built
KNOWN OPERATORS:
none
3-VIEW SCHEMATIC:
X-33
X-32 Boeing
X-32
Fighter Demonstrator
DESCRIPTION:
When the concept demonstrator phase of the Joint Strike Fighter competition was announced in 1996, Boeing was awarded a contract to construct and flight test two X-32 demonstrators of its fighter design. Boeing adopted a rather compact layout featuring a trapezoidal wing of high surface area mounted high on a rather portly fuselage. The X-32 was powered by a single advanced turbofan engine fed by one large intake under the cockpit. A unique aspect of Boeing's original inlet design was its ability to move forward and downward to open an auxiliary intake slot bringing in more air for flight at very low speeds (such as landing aboard an aircraft carrier on the Navy variant).
As with the competing Lockheed Martin X-35, Boeing designed three variants of the X-32 for evaluation. The conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) X-32A was developed for the US Air Force, the short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) X-32B for the US Marine Corps and UK Royal Navy, and the carrier-based (CV) X-32C for the US Navy. However, only two flying examples were actually built.
The first to fly, the X-32A, was used to demonstrate overall flight characteristics, systems, and control software. This model was also used to evaluate the low-speed handling and carrier-approach qualities of the X-32C naval variant. The second example, the X-32B, was equipped with a direct lift system for STOVL operations and was used primarily to evaluate vertical flight and hover characteristics.
Boeing's strategy for STOVL flight was based on that used in the British Harrier. The single engine was mounted at the centre of the vehicle and its thrust directed through three movable nozzles permitting vertical flight. Boeing preferred this approach to Lockheed's lift fan design citing it as less risky. Nevertheless, this hover method was ultimately viewed as a limitation of the X-32 design.
Boeing was also penalised for proposing several changes between the X-32 demonstrator and the final production model. Among these changes was abandonment of the variable intake cowl designed for the X-32C, replacement of the twin tails on the X-32 with more conventional vertical and horizontal tails, and a redesigned wing (see the 3-view below). These factors caused Boeing to lose the JSF contract during the October 2001 downselect, and Lockheed Martin was instead chosen to build a production F-35.
Data below for X-32A
Last modified 26 September 2009
HISTORY:
First Flight (X-32A) 18 September 2000
(X-32B) 29 March 2001
Service Entry
did not enter service
CREW: one: pilot
ESTIMATED COST:
(X-35A) $28 million [1994$]
(X-35B) $35 million [1994$]
(X-35C) $38 million [1994$]
AIRFOIL SECTIONS:
Wing Root unknown
Wing Tip
unknown
DIMENSIONS:
Length (X-32A) 47.42 ft (14.47 m)
(X-32B) 46.00 ft (14.03 m)
Wingspan (X-32A) 36.00 ft (11.00 m)
(X-32B) 30.00 ft (9.15 m)
Height 13.33 ft (4.07 m)
Wing Area (X-32) 590 ft² (55 m²)
(production) 540 ft² (50 m²)
Canard Area
not applicable
WEIGHTS:
Empty (X-32A) 22,500 lb (10,205 kg)
(X-32C) 24,500 lb (11,115 kg)
Normal Takeoff (X-32A) 38,000 lb (17,235 kg)
Max Takeoff (X-32A) 50,000 lb (22,680 kg)
(X-32C) 60,000 lb (27,215 kg)
Fuel Capacity (X-32A) 15,000 lb (6,805 kg) [internal]
(X-32C) 17,000 lb (7,710 kg) [internal]
Max Payload
(X-32A) 14,000 lb (6,350 kg)
(X-32B) 14,000 lb (6,350 kg)
(X-32C) 18,000 lb (8,165 kg)
PROPULSION:
Powerplant (X-32A) one Pratt & Whitney F119-614C turbofan
Thrust 35,000 lb (155 kN)
PERFORMANCE:
Max Level Speed at altitude: Mach 1.5
at sea level: unknown
Initial Climb Rate unknown
Service Ceiling unknown
Range (X-32A) 1,700 nm (3,150 km)
(X-32B) 1,200 nm (2,160 km)
(X-32C) 1,500 nm (2,700 km)
Endurance unknown
g-Limits unknown
KNOWN VARIANTS:
X-32A Multi-role conventional takeoff (CTOL) demonstrator for the US Air Force; 1 built
X-32B Multi-role short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) demonstrator for the US Marine Corps and UK Royal Navy; 1 built
X-32C Navalized (CV) demonstrator similar to the X-32A but with larger fuel tanks and increased takeoff weight; none built during the X-32 evaluation, but the X-32A was used for 33 carrier approach test flights
KNOWN OPERATORS:
United Kingdom (Royal Navy)
United States (US Air Force)
United States (US Marine Corps)
United States (US Navy)
3-VIEW SCHEMATIC:
X-32
X-22 Bell
X-22
V/STOL Research Aircraft
DESCRIPTION:
One of the most unique attempts at vertical flight was embodied in the Bell X-22 that was sponsored by the US Navy during the 1960s. As part of the Tri-Service Program, the US Army, US Air Force, and US Navy each agreed to develop its own vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) concept under the joint supervision of all three services.
The concept adopted by the Navy featured tilting ducted fans since these were considered more suitable for use aboard ships. The ducted fans, mounted in forward and aft pairs, were able to rotate through 90 degrees to transition from vertical to horizontal flight. Pilots were able to control the orientation and speed of the aircraft by varying the pitch of each propeller, to change thrust, and by deflecting elevator surfaces located in the wake of each engine duct. The power to drive each of these fans was provided by turbo shaft engines mounted in pairs at the root of the stubby rear wing. The engines were also joined by cross-shafts so that each fan could still be powered in case one engine or more were to fail.
Although the first X-22 managed to complete a series of vertical and short takeoff tests, a hydraulic failure on 8 August 1966 resulted in the total loss of the machine. All test duties were then transferred to the second example. This model was fitted with a variable stability system developed by the Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory (CAL) making possible great improvements in handling and general flight characteristics.
Upon the completion of the Navy test program, the sole remaining X-22 was handed over on 19 May 1969 for use in a number of Tri-Service, FAA, and NASA V/STOL projects. In that time, the X-22 completed about 400 vertical takeoffs and landings, 200 short takeoff and landings, and 185 transitions between vertical and horizontal flight. In July of 1970, the aircraft was transferred to CAL to conduct further research flights, including the development of a HUD system for the AV-8B Harrier II V/STOL jet. The data collected during the X-22 program also provided vital information used in the design of the V-22 Osprey. The X-22 was retired in October 1984 after completing over 500 flights and is currently displayed at the Niagara Aerospace Museum.
Last modified 05 March 2011
HISTORY:
First Flight 17 March 1966
CREW: two: pilot, co-pilot
ESTIMATED COST:
unknown
AIRFOIL SECTIONS:
Wing Root NACA 64A415
Wing Tip
NACA 64A415
DIMENSIONS:
Length 39.58 ft (12.06 m)
Wingspan 23.00 ft (7.01 m) across forward ducts
39.25 ft (11.96 m) across aft ducts
Height 20.67 ft (6.30 m)
Wing Area 425 ft² (39.56 m²)
Canard Area
not applicable
WEIGHTS:
Empty 11,460 lb (5,195 kg)
Normal Takeoff unknown
Max Takeoff 18,015 lb (8,170 kg)
Fuel Capacity internal: unknown
external: unknown
Max Payload
1,200 lb (545 kg)
PROPULSION:
Power plant four General Electric YT58-8D turbo shafts
Thrust 5,000 shp (3,728 kW)
PERFORMANCE:
Max Level Speed at altitude: unknown
at sea level: 315 mph (510 km/h)
cruise speed: 215 mph (345 km/h) at 11,000 ft (3,355 m)
Initial Climb Rate unknown
Service Ceiling 27,800 ft (8,475 m)
Range 385 nm (715 km)
g-Limits unknown
KNOWN VARIANTS:
X-22A #1 First example built, completed several STOL and V/STOL flights before a hydraulic failure led to a hard landing and loss of the aircraft after 15 flights totalling 3.1 flying hours
X-22A #2 Second example, fitted with a variable stability system to vastly improve flight characteristics, completed 182 flights before being transferred to the Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory for another 300 some flights, retired in October 1984 and placed on display at the Niagara Aerospace Museum in New York
X-22A-1 Proposal for an advanced armed ground support transport with a secondary cargo capability incorporating a redesigned forward fuselage containing tandem cockpit seating; not built
X-22B Proposal for a follow-on X-22A carrying 1,400-shp T-58 turbo shaft engines; not built
X-22C Proposal for an enlarged transport derivative with an aft cargo ramp and powered by 2,650-shp T55 turbo shaft engines; not built
KNOWN OPERATORS:
United States (US Air Force)
United States (US Army)
United States (US Navy)
United States (NASA)
Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory
3-VIEW SCHEMATIC:
X-22
X-15 North American
X-15
High-Speed Research Aircraft
DESCRIPTION:
The X-15 remains the fastest and highest flying manned aircraft ever flown, and is regarded by many as the most important research plane in history. The X-15 emerged from a combined US Air Force and US Navy request for a research aircraft to reach altitudes of 250,000 ft and speeds exceeding Mach 6. The design featured a long slender fuselage with fairings along the side containing fuel and early computerized control systems. Thick fins were placed on the aft fuselage to provide directional control, and the bottom fin was ejected shortly before landing to provide clearance for the landing skids.
The X-15 was carried aloft by a modified B-52 bomber before its rocket engine powered it to the very edge of the atmosphere. The improved X-15A-2 was extensively modified with heat-resistant coatings and large external fuel tanks so that it could fly even higher and faster than earlier examples.
Though the Air Force and Navy funded the project, NACA, later NASA, was in charge of the flight test program. Despite some early accidents, nearly 200 flights were made between 1959 and 1968 allowing NASA to collect data vital to the design of the Space Shuttle.
Data below for X-15A
Last modified 28 August 2010
HISTORY:
First Flight
(X-15A) 10 March 1959 [carried by B-52 but not released]
(X-15A) 8 June 1959 [unpowered glide]
(X-15A) 17 September 1959 [powered flight]
(X-15A-2) 28 June 1964
CREW: one: pilot
ESTIMATED COST:
unknown
AIRFOIL SECTIONS:
Wing Root unknown
Wing Tip
unknown
DIMENSIONS:
Length 50.00 ft (15.24 m)
Wingspan 22.00 ft (6.71 m)
Height 13.50 ft (4.12 m)
Wing Area 200 ft² (18.58 m²)
Canard Area
not applicable
WEIGHTS:
Empty 13,000 lb (5,895 kg)
Normal Takeoff unknown
Max Takeoff 34,000 lb (15,420 kg)
Fuel Capacity internal: unknown
external: unknown
Max Payload
unknown
PROPULSION:
Power plant one Reaction Motors XLR-99 rocket motor
Thrust 57,000 lb (253.6 kN) at sea level
70,000 lb (311.4 kN) at peak altitude
PERFORMANCE:
Max Level Speed (X-15A) 4,160 mph (6,695 km/h)
(X-15A-2) 4,520 mph (7,274 km/h) at 102,100 ft (31,120 m), Mach 6.72
Initial Climb Rate unknown
Service Ceiling (X-15A-2) 354,200 ft (107,960 m)
Range 215 nm (400 km)
g-Limits unknown
KNOWN VARIANTS:
X-15A Original design first powered by an 8,000 lb (35.6 kN) thrust XLR-11 rocket engine; 3 built
X-15A-2 Second X-15A rebuilt following a landing accident, featured a longer fuselage, external fuel tanks, and heat-resistant surface; 1 converted
KNOWN OPERATORS:
United States (US Air Force)
United States (NASA)
3-VIEW SCHEMATIC:
X-15
X-5 Bell
X-5
Variable Sweep Research Aircraft
DESCRIPTION:
In the closing days of World War II, US forces captured a German facility were Messerschmidt had nearly completed construction of its P.1101 prototype. This a research aircraft had been built to study the effects of different angles of wing sweep during flight. After being shipped to the US for analysis at Wright Field in Ohio, Bell took possession of the aircraft as a test vehicle for a variable wing-sweep mechanism. The P.1101 had been damaged and was not airworthy, but analysis of the design convinced Bell and the US Air Force to construct two similar aircraft, known as the X-5, for flight tests.
The final design, bearing a clear resemblance to the original Messerschmidt craft, featured a mechanism allowing the wings to move fore and aft as they were swept between angles of 20, 45, and 60 degrees in flight. Although the wing-sweep mechanism was found to be impractical for use on future aircraft, the X-5 validated wind-tunnel tests indicating that increasing wing-sweep when approaching Mach 1 would significantly reduce drag and improve aerodynamic performance. This data proved useful in designing the Air Force's F-111 bomber and the Navy's F-14 fighter.
However, the X-5 itself was found to exhibit a severe stall-spin instability that resulted in the fatal crash of the second example. The first X-5, after completing 133 test flights, was used as a chase plane for other research aircraft since its ability to change wing geometry made it well-suited to matching the flight characteristics of other aircraft. Upon its retirement, the #1 ship went on display at the US Air Force Museum in Ohio.
Last modified 26 September 2009
HISTORY:
First Flight 20 June 1951
CREW: one: pilot
ESTIMATED COST:
unknown
AIR FOIL SECTIONS:
Wing Root NACA 64A011
Wing Tip
NACA 64A08.28
DIMENSIONS:
Length 33.33 ft (10.16 m)
Wingspan 30.81 ft (9.39 m) at minimum sweep
18.58 ft (5.66 m) at maximum sweep
Height 12.00 ft (3.66 m)
Wing Area unknown
Canard Area
not applicable
WEIGHTS:
Empty unknown
Normal Takeoff unknown
Max Takeoff 10,000 lb (4,535 kg)
Fuel Capacity internal: unknown
external: unknown
Max Payload
unknown
PROPULSION:
Powerplant one Allison J35-17A turbojet
Thrust 4,900 lb (21.80 kN)
PERFORMANCE:
Max Level Speed at altitude: unknown
at sea level: 650 mph (1,045 km/h)
Initial Climb Rate unknown
Service Ceiling unknown
Range unknown
g-Limits unknown
KNOWN VARIANTS:
X-5 #1 First example built, used as a NACA test aircraft from 1951 until 1955 and completed 133 flights, later used as a chase plane and now on display at the US Air Force Museum
X-5 #2 Second example operated by Bell and the US Air Force, destroyed in a fatal crash resulting from an uncontrolled spin on 13 October 1953
KNOWN OPERATORS:
United States (US Air Force)
United States (NASA)
3-VIEW SCHEMATIC:
X-5
X-1 Bell
X-1
High-Speed Research Aircraft
DESCRIPTION:
The Bell X-1 is one of the most significant test aircraft in history since it was the first plane to conclusively break the sound barrier. The X-1 project began in 1944 when the US Army Air Force (USAAF) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) agreed on a joint program to investigate the possibility of supersonic flight. The feasibility of flight above Mach 1 depended on the development of powerful rocket engines and new materials to counter the heat generated by friction encountered at high speeds.
A contract was soon awarded to Bell for the construction of three XS-1 (experimental supersonic - 1) aircraft, though the 'S' portion of the designation was later dropped. The fuselage was patterned after a .50 calibre bullet to reduce drag. The portly shape also provided significant internal volume for a powerful rocket motor, fuel, and data collection equipment.
Though the X-1 had originally been designed for conventional takeoffs, all flights but one were carried aloft by a B-29 or B-50 Super fortress mother plane. The X-1 was lifted to an altitude of 20,000 ft (6,100 m) before being released to ignite its rocket engines. This technique was advantageous since it improved safety in ground operations and also vastly increased the aircraft's performance.
The flight test program began with a few test glides and powered flights, but the most important flight of the X-1 came on 14 October 1947. It was on this date that Capt. Charles Yeager became the first pilot to break the "sound barrier" when he reached Mach 1.06 at 43,000 ft (13,120 m) over the Mojave Desert near Muroc Dry Lake, California. A few days later, the X-1-1 also set an altitude record by reaching 71,900 ft (21,935 m).
Following the loss of the X-1-3 in a ground accident, NASA ordered a further three examples called the X-1A, X-1B, and X-1D to explore flight at Mach 2. Chuck Yeager set a new speed record of Mach 2.44 aboard the X-1A in 1953, but both this model and the X-1D were lost following propulsion explosions. Despite these dangers, the X-1-2 was rebuilt as the X-1E to conduct further experiments at Mach 2 and beyond. This model became one of the fastest and highest flying of the series thanks to its reduced weight and drag.
The X-1 program was completed in 1958, but its impact on aviation history is considerable. The three surviving X-1 models, including the historic X-1-1, have been preserved at sites across the country.
Data below for X-1-1
Last modified 27 September 2009
HISTORY:
First Flight 19 January 1946 [unpowered glide]
9 December 1946 [powered flight]
CREW: one: pilot
ESTIMATED COST:
unknown
AIR FOIL SECTIONS:
Wing Root (X-1-1) NACA 65-110
(X-1-2) NACA 65-108
(X-1E) NACA 64A004
Wing Tip
(X-1-1) NACA 65-110
(X-1-2) NACA 65-108
(X-1E) NACA 64A004
DIMENSIONS:
Length 31.00 ft (9.45 m)
Wingspan 28.00 ft (8.53 m)
Height 10.85 ft (3.31 m)
Wing Area 130.0 ft² (12.01 m²)
Canard Area
not applicable
WEIGHTS:
Empty 4,890 lb (2,220 kg)
Normal Takeoff 12,225 lb (5,545 kg)
Max Takeoff 13,400 lb (6,080 kg)
Fuel Capacity internal: unknown
external: unknown
Max Payload
unknown
PROPULSION:
Power plant one Reaction Motors XLR11-RM3 rocket motor
Thrust 6,000 lb (26.69 kN)
PERFORMANCE:
Max Level Speed at altitude: 955 mph (1,540 km/h) at 40,130 ft (12,245 m), Mach 1.45
at sea level: unknown
Initial Climb Rate unknown
Service Ceiling 71,900 ft (21,935 m)
Range unknown
g-Limits unknown
KNOWN VARIANTS:
XS-1 (later X-1) Original designation for series of joint US Army Air Force and NACA research aircraft to explore supersonic flight (hence the 'S' designation)
X-1-1 First X-1 completed and made the first unpowered flight of the program, was also the first aircraft to exceed Mach 1 on 14 October 1947 with Capt. Charles Yeager as pilot, also completed the only runway takeoff of the X-1 program, completed 82 flights and is now on display at the National Air & Space Museum
X-1-2 Second example built and flew the first powered flight, completed 74 flights
X-1-3 Third X-1 built but completed three years late due to propulsion development problems, exploded during ground operations and was destroyed along with its B-50 mother ship
X-1A Modified X-1 design with a more traditional cockpit canopy, lengthened fuselage for increased fuel capacity, and improved fuel pumps; set a speed record of Mach 2.435 on 12 December 1953 and an altitude record of 90,440 ft (27,590 m) in June 1954 but was lost when an in-flight explosion forced the mother ship to jettison the craft; completed 29 flights
X-1B Equipped with aerodynamic heating instrumentation for thermal research, completed 27 flights and is now on display at the Alabama Space and Rocket Center at Huntsville
X-1C Cancelled
X-1D Final model built but was lost when it had to be jettisoned from its B-50 mother ship following a propulsion explosion
X-1E X-1-2 model rebuilt with an improved cockpit canopy, new 4% thick high-speed wing, and rocket-assisted ejection seat; achieved Mach 2.24 and a maximum altitude of 75,000 ft (22,880 m), completed 26 flights and is now on display at Edwards Air Force Base
KNOWN OPERATORS:
United States (US Army Air Force)
United States (US Air Force)
United States (NASA)
3-VIEW SCHEMATIC:
X-1
Voyager Rutan
Voyager
Experimental Aircraft
DESCRIPTION:
The Voyager earned its place in history after becoming the first air plane to make a non-stop flight around the world without refuelling. The story of the Voyager began when famed aeronautical engineer Burt Rutan formed Scaled Composites and began constructing revolutionary home-built aircraft. His designs, like the VariEze, used advanced aerodynamic concepts and exploited the properties of lightweight composite materials to improve performance.
Using these new technologies, Rutan began construction of the Voyager in the summer of 1982 with assistance from its future pilots Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager. The advanced design was optimised for maximum fuel efficiency with lightweight composites used in 98% of the air frame. These materials gave the Voyager's structure great strength while minimising weight. Construction of the moulded 1/4-inch (0.635 cm) thick wing and fuselage skin required 22,000 work hours and 18 months to complete, but the large internal volume made space for 17 fuel tanks holding over 7,000 lb (3,180 kg) of fuel. Powering the aircraft were two powerful, lightweight, fuel efficient piston engines with one at each end of the fuselage. The combined power of both engines was used during takeoffs and landings, but only the aft engine was used during flight to minimise fuel consumption. Further maximising efficiency were the use of advanced constant-speed variable-pitch propellers.
After completing a number of trial flights, including a trip to the Oshkosh Air Show, the Voyager was finally ready to attempt its record-breaking around-the-world flight on 14 December 1986. Disaster nearly struck even before the Voyager became airborne when the heavy fuel load so weighed down the wings that the tips scraped along the runway during the takeoff run. The aircraft finally lifted off just 800 ft (245 m) from the end of the 15,000 ft (4,570 m) runway. Once airborne, the pilots began a series of manouvers that succeeded in breaking off the damaged winglets. Although the damaged tips increased drag, Voyager was manoeuvred by ground personnel into regions of higher tail winds to compensate for the loss in performance.
Thanks to the winds of Typhoon Marge, Voyager reached a top speed of 150 mph (240 km/h) and an average speed of 115 mph (185 km/h) during its journey. The aircraft travelled a total of 24,986 mi (42,212 km) based on a route determined by weather, winds, and the avoidance of potentially hostile nations. Although the majority of the flight proved uneventful, the two crew members were shaken up by a violent storm near Brazil that forced Voyager into a 90° bank. Further excitement occurred over the Baja Peninsula of Mexico when both engines briefly failed resulting in a loss of 5,000 ft (1,525 m) of altitude. Nonetheless, the Voyager continued on to Edwards Air Force Base were it made a triumphant return on 23 December 1986 concluding a journey that lasted 9 days, 3 minutes, and 44 seconds.
For their successful flight, the Rutan brothers, Yeager, and crew chief Bruce Evans earned the prestigious Collier Trophy. Voyager made only one further flight when it returned to the Scaled Composites headquarters located in nearby Mojave, California. Voyager was then disassembled and donated to the National Air & Space Museum where the aircraft is now on display.
Last modified 22 November 2010
HISTORY:
First Flight 22 June 1984
CREW: two: pilot, co-pilot
ESTIMATED COST:
unknown
AIR FOIL SECTIONS:
Wing Root unknown
Wing Tip
unknown
DIMENSIONS:
Length 29.17 ft (8.90 m)
Wingspan 110.67 ft (33.76 m)
Height 10.25 ft (3.13 m)
Wing Area 324 ft² (30.10 m²)
Canard Area
38 ft² (3.53 m²)
WEIGHTS:
Empty 2,250 lb (1,020 kg)
Normal Takeoff unknown
Max Takeoff 9,700 lb (4,400 kg)
Fuel Capacity 7,010 lb (3,180 kg)
Max Payload
unknown
PROPULSION:
Power plant one Teledyne Continental 0-240 piston engine (forward) and
one Teledyne Continental IOL-200 piston engine (aft)
Thrust (O-240) 130 hp (97 kW)
(IOL-200) 110 hp (82 kW)
PERFORMANCE:
Max Level Speed at altitude: 150 mph (240 km/h)
at sea level: unknown
cruise speed: 115 mph (185 km/h)
Initial Climb Rate unknown
Service Ceiling 20,480 ft (6,250 m)
Range 22,778 nm (42,212 km)
g-Limits unknown
KNOWN VARIANTS:
Voyager Experimental aircraft and the first air plane to fly around the world without refuelling, now on display at the National Air & Space Museum; 1 built
D-558-2 Skyrocket Douglas
D-558-2 Skyrocket
High-Speed Research Aircraft
DESCRIPTION:
When the US Navy Bureau of Aeronautics and NACA agreed to develop the D-558-1 Skystreak transonic research plane, they envisioned later replacing the design's single large turbojet with a smaller turbojet and a rocket motor to explore flight at supersonic speeds. However, review of German aerodynamic data captured at the end of World War II convinced planners and designers that the basic design should also be used to investigate the use of swept-wings. The German research and NACA wind-tunnel tests had confirmed that swept-wings offer many advantages in high-speed flight, especially raising the critical Mach number to reduce the effect of wave drag. Based on these findings, Douglas designed a completely new aircraft, the D-558-2 Skyrocket, with a larger diameter fuselage containing a turbojet for takeoff and low-speed flight as well as a rocket engine for high-speed flight. The new design also featured a mid-set wing with 35° of sweep and a swept horizontal tail assembly.
Three examples of the D-558-2 were built, the first flying in 1948. This first example was powered by a turbojet only, because of slow development of the XLR-8 rocket motor, and was only capable of conventional takeoffs and landings. The second example, D-558-2 #2, was the first and only to feature the mixed power plant and was also intended for conventional takeoffs, but was later modified to be carried aloft by a B-29 mother ship and launched in flight. The #2 ship later had its turbojet deleted in favour of rocket-only propulsion, and the extra space was used for additional fuel. In this configuration, the aircraft was able to achieve Mach 2.005 at 62,000 ft (18,915 m) on 20 November 1953, thereby becoming the first aircraft to exceed Mach 2. Probably the most successful of the series, the #2 ship also set an unofficial altitude record of 83,235 ft (25,395 m) on 21 August 1953.
Although overshadowed by the X-1, the Skyrocket was an exceptionally successful program that provided a great deal of useful data on supersonic flight. In particular, the D-558-2 uncovered the tendency of swept-wings to pitch-up in certain conditions and was used to explore the effects of a number of aerodynamic devices at supersonic speeds. Over 200 flights were made before the Skyrocket was retired in December 1956.
Last modified 27 September 2009
HISTORY:
First Flight 4 February 1948
CREW: one: pilot
ESTIMATED COST:
unknown
AIR FOIL SECTIONS:
Wing Root NACA 63-010
Wing Tip
NACA 63-012
DIMENSIONS:
Length 45.25 ft (13.79 m)
Wingspan 25.00 ft (7.62 m)
Height 11.50 ft (3.51 m)
Wing Area 175.0 ft² (16.26 m²)
Canard Area
not applicable
WEIGHTS:
Empty unknown
Normal Takeoff unknown
Max Takeoff (turbojet only) 10,570 lb (4,795 kg)
(mixed) 15,265 lb (6,925 kg)
(rocket only) 15,785 lb (7,170 kg)
Fuel Capacity internal: unknown
external: unknown
Max Payload
unknown
PROPULSION:
Power plant one Westinghouse J34-22 turbojet and
one Reaction Motors XLR-8-5 rocket motor
Thrust (J34-22) 3,000 lb (13.35 kN)
(XLR-8) 6,000 lb (26.69 kN)
PERFORMANCE:
Max Level Speed at altitude: 585 mph (940 km/h) at 20,000 ft (6,095 m) [turbojet only]
at altitude: 720 mph (1,160 km/h) at 40,000 ft (12,190 m) [mixed, conventional takeoff]
at altitude: 1,250 mph (2,010 km/h) at 67,500 ft (20,575 m) [rocket only, air-launched]
at sea level: unknown
Initial Climb Rate unknown
Service Ceiling unknown
Range unknown
g-Limits unknown
KNOWN VARIANTS:
D-558-2 #1 First example built and flown, initially powered by only a turbojet until rocket motors became available, used mainly by the US Navy
D-558-2 #2 Second example, used by NACA primarily to study the characteristics of swept-wings, only aircraft of the series to have mixed turbojet and rocket propulsion but was later modified to a rocket only configuration and air-launched from a B-29 mother ship, set several speed and altitude records, now on display at the National Air & Space Museum
D-558-2 #3 Final aircraft built and powered by rocket motor only, also modified for air-launch only, used by NACA to explore the effectiveness of wing slats and leading edge devices as well as aerodynamic effects on under-wing stores at high-speeds
D-558-3 Proposed hyper sonic research aircraft derived from the D-558-2, intended to reach Mach 9 at 750,000 ft (228,600 m) but was abandoned in favour of the X-15
KNOWN OPERATORS:
United States (US Navy)
United States (NACA)
3-VIEW SCHEMATIC:
D-558-2 Skyrocket
D-558-1 Skystreak Douglas
D-558-1 Skystreak
High-Speed Research Aircraft
DESCRIPTION:
Commissioned by the US Navy Bureau of Aeronautics and NACA, the Douglas D-558-1 was a high-speed jet-powered research aircraft. The D-558-1 Skytreak was designed to investigate the aerodynamic effects of flight at transonic speeds ranging from Mach 0.75 to 0.85. To keep the design as simple as possible, the configuration featured a straight wing and tail attached to a slender fuselage of circular cross-section.
A unique aspect of the design was its ejection system. The entire nose section of the Skystreak was designed to detach in an emergency, and once it had slowed sufficiently, the pilot could bail-out in the conventional way. Unlike many other early research aircraft, such as the X-1, the D-558-1 was able to takeoff from the ground under its own power, supplied by a single Allison turbojet. The Skystreak was also heavily instrumented for its role as a transonic research jet. Probes recording pressure at 400 points along the air frame as well as strain gauges placed throughout the wing and tail provided data invaluable to the development of future transonic aircraft.
Although the Navy originally ordered six of the aircraft, only three were finally built. The first aircraft set a world speed record of 640.663 mph (1,031.04 km/h) on 20 August 1947, and raised this record to 650.796 mph (1,047.35 km/h) just five days later. This aircraft also managed to exceed Mach 1 on 29 September 1948, albeit in a 35° dive. An additional three examples were also planned, but the rapid pace of research into high-speed flight during the late 1940s soon made the design obsolete. Instead, attention shifted to the much more advanced and capable D-558-2 Skyrocket.
Last modified 27 September 2009
HISTORY:
First Flight 14 April 1947
CREW: one: pilot
ESTIMATED COST:
unknown
AIR FOIL SECTIONS:
Wing Root NACA 65-110
Wing Tip
NACA 65-110
DIMENSIONS:
Length 38.71 ft (10.88 m)
Wingspan 25.00 ft (7.62 m)
Height 12.15 ft (3.70 m)
Wing Area 150.7 ft² (14.0 m²)
Canard Area
not applicable
WEIGHTS:
Empty unknown
Normal Takeoff 9,750 lb (4,420 kg)
Max Takeoff 10,105 lb (4,585 kg)
Fuel Capacity internal: unknown
external: unknown
Max Payload
unknown
PROPULSION:
Power plant one Allison J35-A-11 turbojet
Thrust 5,000 lb (22.24 kN)
PERFORMANCE:
Max Level Speed at altitude: Mach 0.99
at sea level: 650 mph (1,050 km/h), Mach 0.85
Initial Climb Rate unknown
Service Ceiling unknown
Range unknown
g-Limits unknown
KNOWN VARIANTS:
D-558-1 #1 First example built and flown, used only by the US Navy
D-558-1 #2 Second example that completed 19 flights before a fatal crash caused by an engine compressor failure
D-558-1 #3 Final aircraft built that made 78 flights for NACA before being retired on 10 June 1953
D-558-1 #4, #5, #6 Additional aircraft originally ordered but later cancelled in favour of the D-558-2
KNOWN OPERATORS:
United States (US Navy)
United States (NACA)
3-VIEW SCHEMATIC:
D-558-1 Skystreak
List of X-planes
Type Manufacturer Agency Image Date Role Notes
X-1A Bell USAF, NACA Bell X-1 46-062 (in flight).jpg 1946 High-speed and high-altitude flight First aircraft to break the sound barrier in level flight.
Proved aerodynamic viability of thin wing sections.[4]:5–7
X-1B
X-1C
X-1D Bell USAF, NACA Bell X-1A.jpg 1951 High-speed and high-altitude flight
X-1E Bell USAF, NACA Joe Walker X-1E.jpg 1955 High-speed and high-altitude flight
X-2 Bell USAF X-2 After Drop from B-50 Mothership - GPN-2000-000396.jpg 1952 High-speed and high-altitude flight First aircraft to exceed Mach 3.[4]:8
X-3
Stiletto Douglas USAF, NACA Douglas X-3 NASA E-17348.jpg 1952 Highly loaded trapezoidal wing Titanium alloy construction; Under powered, but provided insights into inertia coupling.[4]:9
X-4
Bantam Northrop USAF, NACA Northrop-X4-Bantam.jpg 1948 Transonic tailless aircraft[4]:10
X-5 Bell USAF, NACA Bell-X5-Multiple.jpg 1951 variable geometry First aircraft to fly with variable wing sweep.[4]:11
X-6 Convair USAF, AEC NB-36H producing contrails in flight.jpg 1957 Nuclear Propulsion Not built. The Convair NB-36H was a B-36 modified to carry a nuclear reactor and flew from 1955 to 1957.[4]:12[7]
X-7 Lockheed USAF, USA, USN X-7 USAF.jpg 1951 Ramjet engines.[4]:13
X-8
Aerobee Aerojet NACA, USAF, USN AerojetX8.jpg 1949 Upper air research[4]:14 Later models used as sounding rockets.
X-9
Shrike Bell USAF Bell X-9 trailer.jpg 1949 Guidance and propulsion technology Assisted development of GAM-63 Rascal missile.[4]:15
X-10 North American USAF North American X-10 runway.jpg 1953 SM-64 Navajo missile testbed.[4]:16
X-11 Convair USAF Convair X-11 launch.jpg 1957 SM-65 Atlas missile testbed.[4]:17
X-12 Convair USAF Convair X-12 launch.JPG 1957 SM-65 Atlas missile testbed.[4][4]:18
X-13
Vertijet Ryan USAF, USN Ryan X-13.jpg 1955 Vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) tailsitting VTOL flight.[4]:19
X-14 Bell USAF, NASA Bell X-14 colour ground.jpg 1957 VTOL Vectored thrust configuration for VTOL flight.[4]:20
X-15 North American USAF, NASA X-15 in flight.jpg 1959 Hypersonic, high-altitude flight First manned hypersonic aircraft; capable of suborbital spaceflight.[4]:21–22
X-15 A-2 North American USAF, NASA X-15A2 NB-52B 3.jpg 1964 Hypersonic, high-altitude flight Major Pete Knight flew the X-15 A-2 to a Mach 6.70, making it the fastest piloted flight of the X-plane program.
X-16 Bell USAF 1954 High-altitude reconnaissance[4]:23 "X-16" designation used to hide true purpose.[8] Cancelled and never flew.
X-17 Lockheed USAF, USN Lockheed X-17 horizontal.jpg 1956 High Mach number reentry.[4]:24
X-18 Hiller USAF, USN Hiller X-18 testplatformLarge.jpg 1959 Vertical and/or short take-off and landing (V/STOL) Evaluated the tiltwing concept for VTOL flight.[4]:25
X-19 Curtiss-Wright Tri-service Curtiss-Wright X-19 flying.jpg 1963 Tandem tiltrotor VTOL[4]:26 XC-143 designation proposed.[9]
X-20
Dyna-Soar Boeing USAF NASA Color Dyna Soar.jpg 1963 Reusable spaceplane Military missions.[4]:27 Cancelled and never built.
X-21A Northrop USAF X21A.jpg 1963 Boundary layer control[4]:28
X-22 Bell Tri-service X-22a onground bw.jpg 1966 Quad ducted fan tiltrotor STOVL[4]:29
X-23
PRIME Martin Marietta USAF X23 PRIME.JPG 1966 Maneuvering atmospheric reentry[4]:30 Designation never officially assigned.[10]
X-24A Martin Marietta USAF, NASA X24.jpg 1969 Low-speed lifting body[4]:31
X-24B Martin Marietta USAF, NASA X-24b-flying.jpg 1973 Low-speed lifting body[4]:32
X-25 Bensen USAF X-25.jpg 1955 Commercial light autogyro for downed pilots.[4]:33
X-26
Frigate Schweizer DARPA, US Army, USN X-26 sailplane.jpg
QT-2PCs in STAAF, RVN Hanger c1968.jpg 1967 Training glider for yaw-roll coupling
Quiet observation aircraft[4]:34
X-27 Lockheed None X-27 mockup.jpg 1971 High-performance fighter[4]:35 Cancelled and never flew.
X-28
Sea Skimmer Osprey USN X-28 on ground.jpg 1970 Low-cost aerial policing seaplane[4]:36
X-29 Grumman DARPA, USAF, NASA Grumman-X29-InFlight.jpg 1984 Forward-swept wing[4]:37
X-30
NASP Rockwell NASA, DARPA, USAF X-30 NASP 2.jpg 1993 Single stage to orbitspaceplane[4]:38 Cancelled and never built.
X-31 Rockwell-MBB DARPA, USAF, BdV Rockwell-MBB X-31 landing.JPG 1990 Thrust vectoringsupermaneuverability[4]:39
X-32A Boeing USAF, USN, USMC, RAF 2000 Joint Strike Fighter[4]:40–41
X-32B Boeing USAF, USN, RAF USAF X32B 250.jpg 2001 Joint Strike Fighter[4]:40–41
X-33
Venture Star Lockheed Martin NASA X-33 Venture Star in Orbit.jpg N/A Half-scale reusable launch vehicleprototype.[4]:42 Prototype never completed.
X-34 Orbital Sciences NASA Orbital Sciences X34.jpg N/A Reusable unmanned spaceplane.[4]:43 Never flew.
X-35A Lockheed Martin USAF, USN, USMC, RAF X-35.jpg 2000 Joint Strike Fighter[4]:44–45
X-35B Lockheed Martin USAF, USN, USMC, RAF 2001 Joint Strike Fighter[4]:44–45
X-35C Lockheed Martin USAF, USN, USMC, RAF Lockheed F-35 Joint Strike Fighter.jpg 2000 Joint Strike Fighter[4]:44–45
X-36 McDonnell Douglas NASA Boeing-X36-InFlight.jpg 1997 28% scale tailless fighter[4]:46
X-37 Boeing USAF, NASA Boeing X-37B inside payload fairing before launch.jpg 2010 Reusable orbital spaceplane[4]:47 Drop test performed in 2006.
X-38 Scaled Composites NASA ISS Crew Return Vehicle.jpg 1998 Lifting body Crew Return Vehicle[4]:48
X-39 Unknown USAF Classified Future Aircraft Technology Enhancements (FATE) program.[4]:49 Designation never officially assigned.[10]
X-40A Boeing USAF, NASA Boeing X40A.jpg 1998 80% scale Space Maneuver Vehicle
X-37 prototype.[4]:50
X-41 Unknown USAF Classified Maneuvering re-entry vehicle.[4]:51
X-42 Unknown USAF Classified Expendable liquid propellant upper-stage rocket.[4]:52
X-43
Hyper-X Micro Craft NASA X-43 NASA.jpg 2001 Hypersonic Scramjet[4]:53
X-44
MANTA Lockheed Martin USAF, NASA X-44 Manta artistic impression.JPG N/A F-22-based Multi-Axis No-Tail Aircraft thrust vectoring[4]:54 Cancelled, never flew.
X-45 Boeing DARPA, USAF Boeing X-45A UCAV.jpg
Airshowfan-dot-com--by-Bernardo-Malfitano--Image2-of-X45C-mockup-at-Nellis-05.jpg 2002 Unmanned combat air vehicle(UCAV)[4]:55
X-46 Boeing DARPA, USN X46.jpg N/A Unmanned combat air vehicle(UCAV).[4]:56 Naval use. Cancelled, never flew.
X-47A Pegasus
X-47B Northrop Grumman DARPA, USN X-47A rollout.jpg 2003 Unmanned combat air vehicle(UCAV)[4]:57 Naval use.
X-48 Boeing NASA ED06-0198-62.jpg 2007 Blended Wing Body (BWB)[4]:58
X-49
Speedhawk Piasecki US Army Piasecki X-49-3.jpg 2007 Compound helicopter
Vectored Thrust Ducted Propeller (VTDP) testbed.[11]
X-50
Dragonfly Boeing DARPA Boeing X-50A.jpg 2003 Canard Rotor/Wing[4]:60
X-51
Waverider Boeing USAF X51waverider.jpg 2010[12] Hypersonic scramjet[13]
X-52 — — — — — Number skipped to avoid confusion with Boeing B-52 Stratofortress.[10]
X-53 Boeing NASA, USAF X-53 Active Aeroelastic Wing NASA test aircraft EC03-0039-1.jpg 2002 Active Aeroelastic Wing[14]
X-54 Gulfstream NASA N/A Supersonic transport[15] in development.
X-55 Lockheed Martin USAF Lockheed Martin X-55 ACCA 001.jpg 2009 Advanced Composite Cargo Aircraft (ACCA)[16]
X-56 Lockheed Martin USAF/NASA Lockheed Martin X-56A.jpg 2012 Active flutter suppression and gust load alleviation Part of the high-altitude, long-endurance (HALE) reconnaissance aircraft program.[17]
X-57
Maxwell ESAero/Tecnam NASA X57-Maxwell-CGI.jpg 2016 Low emission plane powered entirely by electric motors[18] Part of NASA's Scale-able Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology Operations Research project you see all of these, these have been payed for, mainly
from illicitly siphoning off of taxes, and there are even more, hidden black and super black, and
ultraviolet projects,instead of these death machines, why not put all that cash into life extension
machines,and things that are of a benefit, to the species, all that money, we could be all immortal
by now, or at least super healthy as, standardz, hahahaha, :( #edio